Anthony Waterman


Anthony Waterman was born in Southampton, England on 4 June, 1931. He was educated at King Edward VI School, Southampton and at Selwyn College, Cambridge where he read Economics, graduating BA with Honours (II-1) in 1954 and proceeding to the MA in 1958. Between school and university he served in the Royal Artillery as a Second Lieutenant, and from 1951-54 was a Lieutenant in the Queen’s Own Dorset Yeomanry.

In 1954 Anthony migrated to Canada, settling at first in Sarnia, Ontario where he married his fourth cousin, Margaret Elizabeth Sinclair, in 1955. Having worked in Sarnia as an auditor for a firm of Chartered Accountants, Anthony moved to Montreal in 1956 where he was employed by Canadian Industries Limited as an economic analyst. In 1959 he decided to test his vocation to the priesthood, and was invited by St John’s College, Winnipeg, to lecture in Economics whilst studying Theology. Anthony graduated B.Th. in 1962 and was ordered to the Diaconate, serving simultaneously as honorary Deacon-assistant at All Saints’ Church, Winnipeg, and as Assistant Professor of Economics at St John’s College. His diocesan, Archbishop Howard Clark who ordained him, had determined that Anthony should serve an academic rather than a parochial ministry, that after ordination as Priest in 1963 he should work for a doctorate at a respectable university, and that – contrary to the original intentions of the College authorities – his doctorate should be in Economics rather than in Theology.

Accordingly Anthony applied for and was elected to a Research Scholarship in the Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National University 1964-1967. During his time in Australia, Anthony served as an Honorary Assistant Priest at St Paul’s Church, Canberra, lectured in Theology to candidates for the General Ordination Examination, and published his first four professional articles, one in Theology, three in Economics. Having completed his thesis on the Australian business cycle (which eventually became his first book) he returned to Winnipeg at the behest of Archbishop Clark and resumed his duties as Associate Professor of Economics and Honorary Assistant Priest at a succession of Winnipeg parishes, 1967-76.

In 1969-70 Anthony was consultant to the Canadian Prices and Incomes Commission; in 1971-72 he was a Canada Council leave fellow at University College, Oxford; from 1972 to 1976 he served as head of Economics in the University of Manitoba; and in 1973 he was elected as a diocesan representative to General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada. In 1974 he became a member of the National Executive Council. From 1973 to 1977 he was chairman of a national ‘task force’ of General Synod on the economy. He was also a member of Senate of the University of Manitoba, chairman of the joint Board-Senate committee on student fees, member of the Board of Governors’ bargaining committee, member of two editorial boards, lecturer in Theology at St John’s, and for a year priest-in-charge of St Michael and All Angels Church. By 1976 it had become clear that he must reorder his life. He resigned from all his duties save those of Professor of Economics, abandoned his faltering research program in macroeconomic theory and policy, and began to explore ways of carrying out Archbishop Clark’s original intentions for him.

Opportunity came in 1979, when he was elected to the Maurice Reckitt Fellowship in Christian Social Thought at the University of Sussex. In that year he began a new research program on various aspects of the relation of economic theory to Christian theology, which almost from the first entailed the study of eighteenth and nineteenth-century intellectual history. Virtually all his research, writing and teaching since that time has grown out of that program. His technical studies in Classical and pre-Classical economic analysis have been undertaken to throw light on the controversies which surrounded the gradual emergence of ‘the economic way of thinking’ in what, until the 1860s, was still a Christian society. His work on ‘Christian Political Economy’ in Britain, c. 1798-1834, led him to his recent and current studies of Papal social doctrine.

Anthony has served as consultant to the World Council of Churches and the Church of England Doctrine Committee, and has held visiting appointments at Cambridge, the ANU and Boston College. In 2007 his work in the history of economic thought was recognized by election as Distinguished Fellow of the History of Economics Society of America. In 2014 he was elected Honorary Member of the European Society of the History of Economic Thought. Though he resigned the exercise of his Orders in 1982 and has been canonically a layman since that time, he regards his academic work as a partial attempt to fulfill his vocation as a Christian and an Anglican.

Read further about Anthony’s education and work in Ross B. Emmett’s interview for the Journal of the History of Economic Thought.

Academic and Administrative Positions

  • Fellow, St John’s College, Winnipeg, 1959-2006; Retired Fellow, 2006 - Present
  • Teaching Fellow, Economics and Political Science, St. John's College, Winnipeg, 1959-62
  • Assistant Professor, Economics, St. John's College, 1962-64
  • Research Scholar, Economic History, Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, 1964-67
  • Tutor in Theology, St. Mark's Collegiate Library, Canberra, 1965
  • Associate Professor, Economics, St. John's College and University of Manitoba, 1967-72
  • External Tutor in Economics, University College, Oxford, 1971-72
  • Head, Economics, University of Manitoba, 1972-76
  • Professor of Economics, University of Manitoba, 1972-2006; Professor Emeritus 2007-
  • Lecturer in Theology, St. John's College, 1975-76, 1988, 2003-2006
  • Visiting Research Fellow, School of Social Sciences, University of Sussex, 1979-80
  • Bye Fellow of Robinson College, Cambridge, 1986-87; Resident Senior Member, 1997-98, 2002; Senior Member 1986 to the present
  • Visiting Research Fellow, History of Ideas Program, Australian National University, 1991
  • Director, Institute for the Humanities, University of Manitoba, 1992-95; 1998-2000
  • Visiting Research Fellow, Research School of Social Sciences, Director’s Unit, Australian National University, 1993, 1998
  • Visiting Research Fellow, Boisi Center for Religion and American Public Life, Boston College, 2002
  • Visiting Research Fellow, Research School of Social Sciences, Social and Political Theory Unit, Australian National University, 2003.
  • Visiting Research Fellow, Centre for Studies in Religion and Society, University of Victoria, 2007


Courses taught, University of Manitoba, 1959-2006

  • Undergraduate, General: [for Economics Department] Principles of Economics, Money and Banking, European Economic History, International Trade, Intermediate Macroeconomics, Intermediate Microeconomics, Canadian Economic Problems; [for Applied Mathematics Department] Mathematics for Economists; [for Political Science Department] Introduction to Political Science.
  • Undergraduate, Honours: The Industrial Revolution in Britain, National Income, Business Cycles and Economic Growth, History of Economic Thought
  • Graduate: Advanced Money and Banking, Advanced International Trade, Advanced Macroeconomics, Advanced Economic Growth

Courses taught in Theology

  • St Mark’s Collegiate Library, Canberra, Australia, 1965: Historical and Systematic Theology [for General Ordination Examination]
  • St John’s College, Winnipeg: Biblical and Systematic Theology, 1975-76 [for M.Div program]; Biblical Theology, 1988 [for Extension program]; Topics in Theology, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, 2005-2006 [for Diploma Program]

Doctoral theses supervised

  • K. Bhasin. ‘Neoclassical Growth Models in Open Economies’ (1973)
  • Ross B. Emmett, ‘The Economist as Philosopher: Frank H. Knight and American Social Science During the Twenties and Early Thirties’ (1990). [Awarded the History of Economics Society Best Dissertation Award for 1991]



  • Economic Fluctuations in Australia, 1945-1964. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1972
  • The Measurement of Economic Fluctuations in Canada, 1947 to 1970. Ottawa: Prices and Incomes Commission (Staff Study), 1973
  • Poverty in Canada: A Christian Perspective (with other members of the National Task Force on the Economy). Toronto: Anglican Book Centre, 1978
  • The Collected Economic Papers of C. L. Barber. Edited, with D. P. J. Hum and B. L. Scarfe. Winnipeg: Institute for Social and Economic Research, 1982
  • Revolution, Economics and Religion: Christian Political Economy, 1798-1833. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Paperback reprint, 2006.
  • Economics and Religion: Are They Distinct? Edited, with H. G. Brennan. Dordrecht, London and Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994 [in “Modern Economic Thought” series: general ed., Warren J. Samuels]
  • Religion and Economics: Normative Social Theory. Edited, with J. M. Dean. Dordrecht, London and Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998 [in “Modern Economic Thought’ series: general ed. Warren J. Samuels]
  • Political Economy and Christian Theology since the Enlightenment: Essays in Intellectual History. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
  • “Are Economists Basically Immoral?” And Other Essays on Economics, Ethics, and Religion by Paul Heyne. Edited and with an Introduction, by Geoffrey Brennan and A. M. C. Waterman. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2008.
  • Paul SamuelsonSelected Essays in the History of Economic Analysis. Edited and with an Introduction, by Steve Medema and A. M. C. Waterman. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.


Reference Works

  • “William Godwin”. In Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • “William Paley”. In Biographical Dictionary of British Economists, Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 2004.
  • “Malthus”. In International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2nd Edition, Farmington Hills MI: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007.
  •  “Political Economy: the English School”, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Edited Collections

  • "Malthus Théologien: Economie Politique et Théologie Chrétienne dans le 'Premier Essai'". Dans Malthus Hier et Aujourd'hui (A. Fauve-Chamoux, ed.). Paris: Editions du CNRS, 1985
  • “The Grand Scheme of Subordination: the Intellectual Roots of Tory Doctrine”. In Ideas and Ideologies: Essays in Memory of Eugene Kamenka (N. Rupke and D. W. Lovell, eds.). St Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1994.
  •  “Peasants, Population and Progress in Malthus and Chalmers”. In The Peasant in Economic Thought (E. Forget and R. A. Lobdell, eds.). Aldershot: Edward Elgar, 1995
  •  “The Nexus between Theology and Political Doctrine in Church and Dissent”. In Enlightenment and Religion: the Case of Rational Dissent (K. Haakonssen, ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. [In “Ideas in Context” series: general eds. Q. Skinner, R. Rorty et al.]
  •  “The Beginning of 'Boundaries': the Sudden Separation of Political Economy from Christian Theology”. In Economics and Interdisciplinary Exchange  (Guido Erreygers, ed.). London: Routledge, 2001. Reprinted in Economics and Religion (ed. P. Oslington). Cheltenham: Elgar, 2003.
  • “Mathematical Modeling as an Exegetical Tool: Rational Reconstruction”, In Blackwell Companion to the History of Economic Thought (W. J. Samuels, J. E. Biddle, J. B. Davis eds.)Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.
  •  “The Place of Thomas Chalmers in Scottish Political Economy’. In The History of Scottish Economic Thought (A. and S. Dow, eds.), London: Routledge, 2006.
  • “Theology and the Rise of Political Economy in Britain in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries”: in The Oxford Handbook of Christianity and Economics (ed. P. Oslington), Oxford, University Press, 2014
  • "William Paley 1743-1805”. In The Palgrave Companion to Cambridge Economics (ed. Robert Cord), London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017
  • “‘Economic Doctrine’ in the Church of England since the Reformation”. In Handbook on Economics and Religion (ed. Robert Sauer), London: World Scientific, 2021.

To read more about Anthony's publications, visit his website here