I graduated from Medical school from the University of Toronto in 1978 and completed the anesthesia residency training program as well as critical care training, at the University of Toronto, in 1983. I then completed two years as a research fellow in the Respiratory Investigation Unit at the Health Sciences Centre in Winnipeg and subsequently received a staff appointment in the departments of anesthesia as well as with the Section of Critical Care in the department of medicine.
I have had a career as a clinical anesthesiologist, subspecializing in cardiac anesthesia, as well as general clinical anesthesia. In critical care, I have worked primarily in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit and I was the first medical director of the Intermediate Intensive Care Unit when it was established. I have had a number of administrative positions in both anesthesia and critical care but have managed to carry on a research career focusing on perioperative outcomes and those outcomes that matter to patients.