210 Active Living Centre
The University of Manitoba campuses are located on original lands of Anishinaabeg, Cree, Oji-Cree, Dakota, and Dene peoples, and on the homeland of the Métis Nation. More
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada, R3T 2N2
Dr. Giesbrecht operates the Laboratory for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, where he studies human responses to exercise and work in extreme environments. He has conducted hundreds of cold water immersion studies that have provided valuable information about cold stress physiology and pre-hospital care for human hypothermia. Other research interests include human physical and mental performance in other stresses such as altitude (hypoxia) and diving (hypobaria).
In North America approximately 400 individuals per year die in submersed vehicles, accounting for between five and eleven per cent of all drownings. Dr. Giesbrecht has conducted multiple experiments questioning the widely-held belief that individuals should stay in their car until it fills with water before attempting to exit. His findings led to the development of a new 4-step protocol designed to save lives.
A sinking vehicle may float on the water surface for up to 3 minutes, but you only have 1 minute to exit the vehicle safely.
Do not panic, and do not touch your cell phone. Follow these 4 steps:
Yes. The videos listed here are free to use for educational purposes only:
Note to unit: Please review and update these links if necessary.
Yes. You can download several short papers from our web page (scroll to bottom) http://www.umanitoba.ca/kinrec/giesbrecht.
You may also be interested in our recent book Hypothermia, Frostbite and Other Cold Injuries, which can be accessed at http://www.mountaineersbooks.org/productdetails.cfm?PC=1254
Yes. You can view a PDF listing of selected references here.
A vehicle crash into water has the highest mortality rate of any type of single-vehicle accident. Five to eleven per cent of all drownings in North America occur in vehicles.
We have completed more than 80 vehicle submersion tests with people in them. If you are in a sinking vehicle there is usually time to survive but you must act quickly and correctly.
What not to do: DO NOT TOUCH YOUR CELL PHONE. If you touch your cell phone you will probably die! You have about one minute to exit through your window before water pressure prevents opening the windows. All your cell phone call will do is waste valuable time. Rescue personnel cannot get to you within one minute.
What you should do:
If your vehicle ends up in water, REMEMBER: DO NOT PANIC and
Note: You may need a centre punch to break your side windows – see below for purchase information.
Although a sinking vehicle may be visible for a few minutes, you can only escape during the first minute or so. We consider that the vehicle is FLOATING only until the water reaches the bottom of the side windows (about 1 minute). At this point you can still roll down the windows.
After that, the vehicle is SINKING. Water pressure will press the window against the door frame, making it impossible to open. It does not matter how long this period is. Even though the vehicle is visible, windows and doors cannot be opened.
Finally, the vehicle is SUBMERGED. Even though it is under water, all the air will not have escaped yet and you will still not be able to open the doors or windows. You would have to wait for the vehicle to fill completely with water before the pressure equalizes and the door can be opened, but unfortunately by this point many individuals will have drowned.
Use the window, not the door. Because the water level is higher outside than inside, the pressure makes it VERY DIFFICULT, IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE, to open the door. If you can get the door open, water will rush in and the vehicle will plummet to the bottom. You may be caught in the door, which will then slam shut, and you will certainly trap anyone else who is still in the vehicle.
This device can be found at many Safety Supply retailers.
In Winnipeg this device can be purchased from:
1) Reliant Safety Equipment Inc.
1708 St. James St., Winnipeg
Tel. (204) 582-0734
2) ABC Fire and Safety Equipment Ltd.
9-846 Marion St., Winnipeg
Tel (204) 233-6083
Please note that I do not have any commercial interests in the Res-Q-Me manufacturers or the retailers listed. I recommend it because it is small, effective and can be hung in an obvious, accessible location without being unsightly.
In 2002, I was part of a panel of experts convened in Sitka, Alaska to review and revise the "State of Alaska Cold Injuries Guidelines". This revision was approved by the State Legislature and published in 2003. Download a PDF version here.
Other State of Alaska Emergency Medical Services Unit Downloads can be accessed here.
A free download of my Cold Water Boot Camp presentation PFD is available here for educational use.