Resources to conduct academic work with integrity

There are a number of people and places on campus that will help you understand the rules and how they apply to academic work. If you have questions or are uncertain about what is expected of you in your courses, you have several options.

If you receive an allegation of academic misconduct

If you receive an allegation of academic misconduct, contact Student Advocacy as soon as possible. They will provide confidential guidance to help you address an allegation.

Student Advocacy How an academic misconduct investigation works

Academic integrity and student conduct tutorial

As a member of the university community, you are expected to demonstrate behaviour that upholds academic integrity and is appropriate and respectful. This tutorial is designed to help all UM students to better understand their rights and responsibilities and provide information about specific types of misconduct.

Academic integrity and student conduct tutorial

Integrity is doing the right thing when nobody's watching, and doing as you say you would do.
Roy T. Bennett

Academic misconduct and how to avoid it

Most instances of academic dishonesty are accidental. Students make a mistake because they don't understand the rules, or rules are different for each class. This section covers the six most common types of academic dishonesty and how to avoid them. 

Plagiarism

UM defines plagiarism as “the presentation or use of information, ideas, images, sentences, findings, etc. as one’s own without appropriate citation in a written assignment, test or final examination.”

Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional. It is plagiarism whether you just can't remember where you got an idea, or you simply forget to add a citation.

Other terms for plagiarism include: academic dishonesty, academic misconduct, improper citation, failure to cite, unreferenced quotes and passages, unreferenced sources, re-writing without citing.

Examples of plagiarism

Examples of plagiarism include taking credit for someone else's ideas, copying images, graphs, tables or diagrams without permission, presenting an unreferenced idea, incorrect citations or references, incomplete bibliography or reference list or self-plagiarism.

How to avoid plagiarism

Make sure you cite correctly. If you are not sure how to cite, take advantage of help provided by the Academic Learning Centre, the libraries or talk to your instructor or TA.

Cheating on quizzes, tests, or final examinations

UM defines cheating as “the circumventing of fair testing procedures or contravention of exam regulations. Such acts may be planned or may be unintentional or opportunistic.”

If you do anything during an exam that gives you an advantage, it is considered cheating. It is also your responsibility to protect your answers from view during an exam.

Other terms for cheating include talking during exams, contravention of exam regulations and bringing in cheat sheets.

Examples of cheating

Examples of cheating include looking at another student's paper or screen, letting another student copy off of your exam, helping a friend on an exam, not protecting your answers, taking answers or cheat sheets into an exam, using a cell phone during an exam, asking a TA for special treatment, continuing to write after the time is up and using unauthorized material during an exam.

How to avoid cheating

It is important to avoid even the appearance of cheating. Get help from instructors, teaching assistants, and join study groups well before exam time. If you find yourself overwhelmed during exam time, take advantage of counselling services to help you through. If someone asks you to help them cheat, speak to your instructor or talk to someone in Student Advocacy immediately.

Inappropriate collaboration

At the University of Manitoba, inappropriate collaboration occurs, “when a student and any other unauthorized person work together on assignments, projects, tests, labs or other work intended to be individual."

Learning how to work with other people is a big part of your university education, but so is learning to work by yourself. While it might be obvious you shouldn't work with a partner on some assignments, there are other situations where the line between appropriate and inappropriate collaboration can seem fuzzy. 

Other terms for inappropriate collaboration include unauthorized assistance, collusion, unequal group or team contribution.

Examples of inappropriate collaboration

Examples of inappropriate collaboration include copying from another student or allowing them to copy from you, using another student's data, allowing someone else to do your lab work, working together on an individual assignment, dishonest use of old assignments/tests for the use of completing new assignments, sharing course materials online without authorization, submitting material created by someone else and writing an essay for someone else.

How to avoid inappropriate collaboration

Depending on the professor, even asking a classmate to proofread a paper may be considered inappropriate collaboration. Unless the instructor has specifically stated the project can be worked on in groups, you should assume the assignment is meant to be done individually.

Duplicate submission

UM considers duplicate submission as, “cheating where a student submits a paper, assignment or test in full or in part, for more than one course without the permission of the course instructor.”  

The university expects you to do new and original work for each class instead of re-using a previously submitted paper. If you are writing similar papers, have overlap between them, or need to build on a point you've made before, you need to first ask your professor, and then cite yourself.

Other terms for duplicate submission include: self-plagiarism, copying yourself.

Examples of duplicate submission

Examples of duplicate submission include re-submitting text or data without proper citation, re-submitting the same lab or assignment for another class that has been marked and graded or submitting an old paper.

How to avoid duplicate submission

Do not re-use old work. If you have to, and you've received permission from a professor, you can cite yourself just as you would cite another author, but it should be for the purpose of expanding an idea or building on previous work.

Personation

UM defines personation as, “the writing of an assignment, lab, test, or examination for another student, or the unauthorized use of another person’s signature or identification in order to impersonate someone else. Personation includes both the personator and the person initiating the personation.”

Personation is straightforward. If you do something in place of another student, or another student does something in place of you, both of you have committed personation. 

Other terms for personation include writing a paper or assignment or lab for another student and forging signatures or names on class attendance records.

Examples of personation

Examples of personation include signing an attendance sheet for another student, using fake ID or copying someone else's signature, posting online for a distance course for another student, grading a paper to imply the instructor has graded it, asking another student to write your exam or writing an exam for another student.

How to avoid personation

There is no grey area with personation. Only do your own work and never pretend to be another student or have someone else pretend to be you. Even signing an attendance sheet for someone else counts as personation.

Academic fraud

UM defines academic fraud as, “falsification of data or official documents as well as the falsification of medical or compassionate circumstances/documentation to gain accommodations to complete assignments, tests or examinations."

Sometimes you don't get the results you were expecting. You might be tempted to change data or results slightly, especially if it seems like a minor detail. But if everyone changed their results just a bit when it came to their work, how could we trust any research? Academic fraud has big implications, not just for you, but for everyone else.

Other names for academic fraud include falsification, fabrication, scientific fraud, making up data, changing data, misrepresenting ideas, submitting made-up data, application fraud and forged documentation.

Examples of academic fraud

Examples of academic fraud include purchasing a term paper online or from someone else, falsifying a death certificate or other document, falsely claiming illness, falsification of admission application, forging a signature, stealing other students' research ideas, changing answers to a test after it has been graded and claiming an assignment has been submitted when it has not been turned in.

How to avoid academic fraud

It takes courage to be honest. If you need help, reach out to counselling services or speak to trusted authority figure like your professor, your teaching assistant or your supervisor.

Academic integrity information for faculty and staff

Contact us

Academic Integrity
Loie Gervais, coordinator
Room 205 Tier Building
University of Manitoba (Fort Garry campus)
Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 Canada

204-474-9948