Check Before You Copy

Copying Guidelines

Canada's copyright law provides for copyright to subsist in literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works. The law governs the making of photocopies, digital copies, or other reproductions of copyright-protected works and the sharing or communicating of such works by digital or physical means. Certain copying and communicating of those works may be an infringement of copyright. Copyright law provides that Fair Dealing for the purpose of research, private study, education, parody, satire, criticism, review or news reporting is not an infringement of copyright.

The University of Manitoba is not liable for any infringing copies made or communicated using University equipment (such as copiers and scanners).

Fair Dealing

Copying within the bounds of Fair Dealing for the purposes of education (your own or someone else's) is allowed. The University has adopted a policy of Fair Dealing to assist in determining what may be copied or communicated without infringing copyright. Subject to various qualifications and safeguards, Fair Dealing permits copying and communicating short excerpts, defined as follows:

(a) up to 10% of a copyright-protected work (including a literary work, musical score, sound recording and an audiovisual work)

(b) one chapter from a book

(c) a single article from a periodical

(d) an entire artistic work (including a painting, print, photograph, diagram, drawing, map, chart and plan) from a copyright-protected work containing other artistic works

(e) an entire newspaper article or page

(f) an entire single poem or musical score from a copyright-protected work containing other poems or musical scores

(g) an entire entry from an encyclopedia, annotated bibliography, dictionary or similar reference work

provided that in each case, no more of the work is copied than is required in order to achieve the allowable purpose.

Other Copyright Information

Cite all works used in teaching, writing, research, etc.

The University's Access Copyright licence, which allowed use in the learning management system of up to 20% of a work from the Access Copyright repertoire, has not been renewed.

Consult with the Libraries about electronic resources and licence allowances.

For more information about copyright at the University of Manitoba, contact the Copyright Office at