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Open Access (OA) is “a set of principles and a range of practices through which [scholarly] outputs are distributed online, free of access charges and other barriers” (Peter Suber via Wikipedia). OA offers an alternative academic publishing model for all forms of output including journal articles, theses, book and book chapters, and reports available for viewing and often for reuse.
Open education (OE) "encompasses resources, tools and practices that are free of legal, financial and technical barriers and can be fully used, shared and adapted in the digital environment" (SPARC.org). OE welcomes all contributors, including students, as creators of knowledge and enables connections with communities and network by sharing works in progress and building on the work of others.
A resource must meet the 5 Rs to be designated an Open Education Resource (OER):
- Reuse: Content can be reused without need for subscription or payment.
- Retain: Users can keep their own copies of the content.
- Revise: Content can be modified or adapted.
- Remix: Content can be combined with other resources to create a new work.
- Redistribute: Users can share copies of the content with others.
Open science is “the practice of making scientific inputs, outputs and processes freely available to all with minimal restrictions” (Government of Canada Roadmap for Open Science).