Canada Research Chair - Readings in CBRM for Equator Initiative Projects

Last Updated January 15, 2004

Sustainable Livelihoods and Biodiversity

Chambers, R. 1997. Whose reality counts? Intermediate Technology Publications, London.

Chambers, R. 1995. Poverty and livelihoods: whose reality counts? Environment and Urbanization 7 (1): 173-204. (paper)

Chambers, R. 1983. Putting the last first. Longman, London.

Koziell, I. 2001. Diversity Not Adversity. Sustaining livelihoods with biodiversity. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

Schmink, M. 1999. Conceptual Framework for Gender and Community-Based Conservation. MERGE (Managing Ecosystems and Resources with Gender Emphasis). University of Florida. (paper)

Scoones, I. 1998. Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for analysis. IDS Working Paper 72. Institute for Development Studies, Brighton. (paper)

Conservation versus Development Debate

Berkes, F. (in prep.) Rethinking community-based conservation. (paper)

Francis, J., Nilsson, A. and D. Waruinge. 2002. Marine protected areas in the eastern African region: How successful are they? Ambio 31: 503-511. (abstract)

Conservation and Development Cases

Campbell, L.M. Use them or lose them? Conservation and the consumptive use of marine turtle eggs at Ostional, Costa Rica. Environmental Conservation 25(4): 305-319.

Kellert, S.R., Mehta, J.N., Ebbin, S.A. and L.L. Lichenfeld. 2000. Community natural resource management: promise, rhetoric and reality. Society & Natural Resources 13: 705-715. (abstract)

Mehta, J.N., Lichtenfeld, L.L. and S.R. Kellert. Conservation for Development or Development without Conservation.

Political Ecology

Agrawal, A. and C.C. Gibson 1999. Enchantment and disenchantment: The role of community in natural resource conservation. World Development 27: 629-649. (paper)

Brosius, J.P., Tsing, A. and C. Zerner. 1998. Representing communities: histories and politics of community-based resource management. Society and Natural Resources 11: 157-168. (paper)

Brosius, J.P. and D. Russell. 2003. Conservation from above: An anthropological perspective on transboundary protected areas and ecoregional planning. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 17 (1/2): 39-65. (abstract)

Pomeroy, R.S. 1995. Community-based and co-management institutions for sustainable coastal fisheries management in Southeast Asia. Ocean & Coastal Management 27 (3): 143-162 (paper)

Pomeroy, R.S. and F. Berkes 1997. Two to tango: The role of government in fisheries co-management. Marine Policy 21: 465-480. (paper)

Smith, A.H. and Berkes, F. 1993. Community based use of mangrove resources in St. Lucia. International Journal of Environmental Studies 43: 123-131. (paper)

Common Property Theory

Anderies, J.M., Janssen, M.A. and E. 2003. Design Principles for Robustness of Institutions in Social-Ecological Systems. Presented at "Joining the Northern Commons: Lessons for the World, Lessons from the World", Anchorage, August 17-21, 2003. (conference paper)

Berkes, F., I. Davidson-Hunt and K. Davidson-Hunt 1998. Diversity of common property resource use and diversity of social interests in the western Indian Himalaya. Mountain Research and Development 18: 19-33 (paper)

Feeny, D., F. Berkes, B.J. McCay and J.M. Acheson 1990. The tragedy of the commons: Twenty-two years later. Human Ecology 18: 1-19 (paper)

Oakerson, R. 1992. Analysing the commons: A framework 3: 41-59. In Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy. Bromley, Daniel et al. (eds). San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies Press. (conference paper)

Ostrom, E. 1992. The rudiments of a theory of the origins, survival, and performance of common property institutions 13: 293-318 in Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy. Bromley, Daniel et al. (eds). San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies Press. (conference paper)

Pomeroy, R.S. A Process of Community-Based Fisheries Co-management. NAGA, The ICLARM Quarterly, 1998. Vol. 21, No. 1, pp 71-76. (paper)

Pomeroy, R.S., Pollnac, R.B., Katon, B.M., and C.D. Predo. 1997. Evaluating Factors Contributing to the Success of Community-Based Coastal Resource Management: the Central Visayas Regional Project-1, Philippines. Ocean & Coastal Management, 36 (1-3): 97-120. (paper)

Smith, A.H. and F. Berkes 1991. Solutions to the "tragedy of the commons": Sea urchin management in St. Lucia, West Indies. Environmental Conservation 18: 131-136. (paper)

Stakeholder Analysis and Participatory Research

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Farvar, M.T., Nguinguiri, J.C. and V.A. Ndangang. 2000.Co-management of natural resources: organising, negotiating and learning-by-doing. GTZ and IUCN. Kasparek Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. (book)

Brown, K., Adger, N.W., Tompkins, E., Bacon, P., Shim, D. and Young, K. Trade-off analysis for marine protected area management. CSERGE Working Paper GEC 2000-02. (paper)

Chevalier, J. 2001. Stakeholder Analysis and Natural Resource Management. Carleton University, Ottawa. (paper)

Grimble, R. 1998. Stakeholder Methodologies In Natural Resource Management. Socio-Economic Methodologies Best Practice Guidelines. Natural Resources Institute, The University of Greenwich. (paper)

IIRR. 1998. Participatory methods in community-based coastal resource management. 3 vols. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines.

McAllister, K. 1999. Understanding Participation: Monitoring and evaluating process, outputs and outcomes. International Development Research Centre. (paper)

Renard, Y., Brown, N. and T. Geoghegan. 2001. Integrating Stakeholders in Natural Resource Management in the Caribbean: Guidelines for Stakeholder Identification and Analysis. CANARI Communication n. 286. (paper)

Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Berkes, F. and C. Folke 2002. Back to the future: Ecosystem dynamics and local knowledge. In: Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems (L.H. Gunderson and C.S. Holling, eds.) Island Press, Washington, DC, pp. 121-146 (paper)

Berkes, F., Colding, J. and C. Folke 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10: 1251-1262. (paper)

Posey, D.A. 1998. "Biodiversity, Genetic Resources, and Indigenous Peoples in Amazonia: (Re) Discovering The Wealth of Traditional Resources of Native Amazonians." Pp. 188-204. In A. Hall (ed), Amazonia at the Crossroads. Institute of Latin American Studies. London. (conference paper)

Striplen, C. and S. DeWeedt. 2001. Old Science, new science: Incorporating traditional ecological knowledge into contemporary management. Conservation in Practice 3(3): 21:27. (paper)

Systems View and Resilience

Capra, F. 1996. The Web of Life. Doubleday. New York.

Folke, C. and 24 contributors (including F. Berkes). 2002. Resilience for Sustainable Development: Building Adaptive Capacity in a World of Transformations. International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU), Rainbow Series No. 3. Paris. Also as report for the Swedish Environmental Advisory Council 2002:1 (paper)

Holling, C.S. 2001 Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems. Ecosystem 4: 390-405 (paper)

Holling, C.S. and G.K. Meffe. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328-337. (paper)

Levin, S.A. 1999. Fragile Dominion. Complexity and the Commons. Perseus Books, Reading. MA.

Levin, S. A. 1999. Towards a science of ecological management. Conservation Ecology 3(2): 6. (paper)

Walker, B., Carpenter, S., Anderies, J., Abel, N., Cumming, G.S., Janssen, M., Lebel, L., Norberg, J., Peterson, G.D. and R. Pritchard. 2002. Resilience management in social-ecological systems: a working hypothesis for a participatory approach. Conservation Ecology 6`(1): 14. (paper)

Cross-Scale Analysis

Barrett, C., Brandon, K., Gibson, C. and H. Gjertsen. 2001. Conserving tropical biodiversity amid weak institutions. BioScience 51: 497-502. (paper)

Berkes, F. 2002. Cross-scale institutional linkages: Perspectives from the bottom up. In The Drama of the Commons (E. Ostrom et al.) National Academy Press, Washington DC. pp. 293-321. (book chapter) (conference paper)

Carlsson, L. 2000. Policy networks as collective action. Policy Studies Journal 28: 502-520.

Folke, C., Pritchard Jr., L, Berkes, F., Colding, J. and U. Svedin. The Problem of Fit between Ecosystems and Institutions. IHDP Working Paper No 2 (paper)

Cash, D.W., and S.C. Moser. 2000. "Linking Global and Local Scales: Designing Dynamic Assessment and Management Processes." Global Environmental Change 10(2): 109-120. (abstract)

Young, O.R. 2002. Institutional Interplay: The Environmental Consequences of Cross-Scale Interactions. In The Drama of the Commons (E. Ostrom et al.) National Academy Press, Washington DC. pp. 263-292. (book chapter) (conference paper)

CBRM-Related Web sites

  • International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP)
  • Ford Foundation (
  • International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
  • International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
  • International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR)
  • International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM)
  • Institute of Development Studies (IDS)
  • Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
  • International Development Research Agency (CBNRM – IDRC)