“We stopped sharing when we became civilized”: A Model of Colonialism as a Determinant of Indigenous Health in Canada
Dr. Darrel Manitowabi & Dr. Marion Maar
In the post-World War II era, attention to the poorer health outcomes of Indigenous peoples led to a gradual shift in the discourse surrounding Indigenous-State relations in Canada. By the 1980s, the federal government devolved policies involving First Nations, resulting in First Nations control of the local delivery of federal and provincial government programs and services such as social welfare and capital for improved infrastructure and economic development. We conducted qualitative research examining the perceived impact of increased local control and access to social and economic investments on mino-bimaadiziwin (“good health”) in five Ojibwa/Anishinabe First Nations in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Results suggest these interventions have reduced community solidarity, led to higher unemployment, poorer health and a reliance on materialism, technology, and social programs. There are community divisions between those who have benefited and those who have not. Indigenous communities frame past life ways as a guide to improved mino-bimaadiziwin.
RezRIDERS: A Tribally-Driven, Extreme Sport Intervention & Outcomes
Janice Tosa, Greg Tafoya, Sherwin Sando, Estevan Sando, Kaitlyn Yepa, James Wiley, Nina Wallerstein & Julie Lucero
Reducing Risk through Interpersonal Development, Empowerment, Resiliency, and Self-Determination (RezRIDERS) is a tribally-driven youth empowerment program designed to deter substance abuse and depression symptomology among high-risk American Indian youth while increasing hope/optimism, self-efficacy, and pro-social bonding. The quasi-experimental intervention took place between 2012-2015 in the Pueblo of Jemez (New Mexico, USA). The community-based program served fifty-five total youth. RezRIDERS has four major curricular components: 1) Extreme Sport activity clusters paired with; 2) Indigenized behavioral-cognitive lessons; 3) Tribal Research Team providing program oversight and cultural mentoring; and 4) Community action projects addressing youth-identified community issues. This unique program is a modern version of challenge and journeying that Indigenous people historically experienced as norms. Using qualitative and quantitative data, intervention pilot-testing assessed feasibility and efficacy of the program.