Dr. Paul Bullock

Paul Bullock


Email: paul.bullock@umanitoba.ca

Current Research Interests:

Weather Impacts on Canola Quality in Western Canada

The overall objective of this project is to quantify the effects of growing season weather on canola quality for the purpose of canola quality prediction prior to harvest. This study utilizes the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) harvest survey database for information on several quality indicators of specific canola samples including their growing location, planting date and variety. Weather databases are used to reconstruct the daily weather conditions over the growing season at each sample site. A set of weather parameters is generated for each sample to characterize the precipitation, heat stress and water stress at different phases of canola development at each location. These independent variables are being used to test the impacts of weather at specific growing season stages on canola quality.

Monitoring Soil Moisture Levels in Western Canada Using Real-time Weather Data

The overall objective of this project is to develop an accurate soil moisture model and a prototype system that generates frequent updates of profile soil moisture content from real-time weather data. A network of soil moisture monitoring sites was established in Manitoba, each adjacent to a weather station. The sites include representative vegetation types for the agricultural region of Manitoba including cereal, canola and permanent grass. The Versatile Soil Moisture Budget (VSMB) is being evaluated to determine how accurately it can simulate daily and hourly changes in soil moisture using real-time weather data sources that are readily available across western Canada.

Weather-based Assessment of Sclerotinia Stem Rot risk in Canola

The overall objective of this project is to develop reliable, weather-based method for determining the risk of sclerotinia stem rot in canola. Microclimate stations are deployed under the canola canopy to determine the air temperature, humidity, surface soil moisture and soil temperature. These parameters will be correlated to the occurrence of the disease under varying canopy densities. Standard meteorological data along with canola development stage and canopy density is being used to model the microclimate. The two-stage approach should provide both a better understanding of the environmental thresholds for disease occurrence as well as a link to regular weather conditions.

Improvement of Canola Performance using Stubble Height Management

The overall objective of this project is to determine whether long stubble provides a favourable microclimate for canola germination the following spring and if so, whether this results in improved yield and productivity. Large scale plots with 20 and 50 cm length stubble are being established across western Canada. A series of environmental measurements will be made to quantify the microclimate differences between sites and canola measurements will be used to determine the impacts on the crop.


My overall goal for each component of every course is that the students should find it to be (i) relevant, (ii) informative, (iii) interesting and (iv) enjoyable. I use a fairly standard delivery of lectures, laboratory exercises and assignments. However, these are delivered with the above goals in mind. I use practical examples to provide relevance and interest. I update my material every year to keep it informative and current. I have guests provide their expertise in specific subject areas.

I love to teach. It is a passion for me. But it is important to remember that the students in my courses are “consumers of education”. The University of Manitoba, like other similar institutions, attracts students to sell them an education. Every class that I teach is a part of the package that the university is offering to students who are spending hard-earned money to receive an education. My classes are there for the sake of their learning, not for the sake of my teaching.

Teaching Responsibilities:

SOIL 3060 - Introduction to Agrometeorology
SOIL 4510 - Soil & Water Management
SOIL 3610 - Field Methods in Land Resource Science
SOIL 7170 - Agricultural Micrometeorology

Current People:

Research Associates

  • Dr. Manasah Mkhabela 2010-

Post-doctoral Fellows


Visiting Scientists


Ph.D Students

M.Sc. Students

Undergraduate / Pre-Masters


Past People:

Research Associates

  • Dr. Ibrahim Saiyed 2006-2008
  • Dr. Sangamesh Angadi 2003-2005

Post-doctoral Fellows

  • Dr. Manasah Mkhabela 2008-2010

Visiting Scientists

  • Dr. Shammi Raj 2009

Ph.D Students

  • Randall Renwick 2001-2008

M.Sc. Students

  • Emmanuel Ojo 2009-2011
  • Mark Gervais 2007-2009
  • Chris Holzapfel 2005-2007
  • Andrew Nadler 2004-2007
  • Gordon Finlay 2004-2007
  • Chad Jarvis 2003-2006
  • Yann Pelcat 2000-2006
  • David Whetter 2002-2004

Undergraduate / Pre-Masters

  • Mark Gervais 2005-2006
  • Andrew Nadler 2003-2004



McNairn, H., Jackson, T.J, Wiseman, G., Bélair,  S., Berg, A., Bullock, P.R.,  Colliander, A., Cosh, M.H, Kim, S., Magagi, R., Moghaddam, M., Njoku, E.G, Adams, J.R., Homayouni, S., Ojo, E.R., Rowlandson, T., Shang, J., Goïta, K., Hosseini, M.  The Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12): Prelaunch Calibration and Validation of the SMAP Soil Moisture Algorithms.  IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 53(5): 2784-2801.

Ojo, E.R, Bullock, P. R., L’Heureux, J., Powers, J., McNairn, H., and Pacheco, A. (2015). Calibration and Evaluation of a Frequency Domain Reflectometry Sensor for Real-Time Soil Moisture Monitoring. Vadose Zone Journal. 14(3) doi: 10.2136/vzj2014.08.0114

Ojo, E.R., Bullock, P. R., and Fitzmaurice, J. (2015). Field Performance of Five Soil Moisture Instruments in Heavy Clay Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 79(1), 20-29.

Cardillo, M. J., Bullock, P.R., Gulden, R., Glenn, A. and Cutforth, H. 2015. Stubble management effects on canola performance across different climatic regions of western Canada.  Canadian Journal of Plant Science 95:149-159


Rawluk, A., Crow, G., Legesse, G., Veira, D., Bullock, P.R., Gonzales, L., Dubois, M., and Ominski, K.   2014.  Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area.  Animals 4:670-692

Manns, H., Berg, A., Bullock, P.R. and McNairn, H.  2014.  Soil physical controls on surface soil water content variability over agricultural fields.  Hydrological Processes 28: 4340-4351.

Satchithanantham, S., Sri Ranjan R. and Bullock, P.R.  2014.  Protecting water quality using controlled drainage as an agricultural BMP for potato production.  Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers  57(3): 815-826

Cicek, H., Entz, M.H., Thiessen Martens, J.R. and Bullock, P.R.  2014. Productivity and nitrogen benefits of late season legume cover crops in organic wheat production.  Canadian Journal of Plant Science 94:771-783

Bullied, W.J., Bullock, P.R., Van Acker, R.C. and Flerchinger, G.  2014.  Process-Based Modeling of Temperature and Water Profiles in the Seedling Recruitment Zone: Part II. Seedling Emergence Timing.  Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 188:104-120

Bullied, W.J., Flerchinger, G., Bullock, P.R. and Van Acker, R.C.  2014. Process-Based Modeling of Temperature and Water Profiles in the Seedling Recruitment Zone: Part I. Model Validation.  Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 188:89-103


Rowlandson, T.L., Berg, A.A., Bullock, P.R., Ojo, E.R., McNairn, H, Wiseman, G. and Cosh, M.H.  2013.  Evaluation of several calibration procedures for a portable soil moisture sensor.  Journal of Hydrology 498:335-344.


Bullied, W.J., Bullock, P.R., and Van Acker, R.C.  2012.  Modelling soil water retention for weed seed germination sensitivity to water potential. Applied and Environmental Soil Science 2012, Article ID: 812561 (online, doi:10.1155/2012/812561)

Mkhabela, M.S. and Bullock, P.R.  2012.  Performance of the FAO AquaCrop model for wheat grain yield and soil moisture simulation in Western Canada.  Agric Water Manage 110:16-25

Bullied, W. J., Van Acker, R. C. and Bullock, P. R.  2012. Review: Microsite characteristics influencing weed seedling recruitment and implications for recruitment modeling. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 92: 627-650

Bullied, W.J., Van Acker, R.C. and Bullock, P.R.  2012.  Hydrothermal modeling of seedling emergence timing across topography and soil depth.  Agronomy Journal 104: 1-14

Gervais, M.D., Mkhabela, M., Bullock, P.R., Raddatz, R.L. and Finlay, G.J.  2012.  Comparison of standard and actual crop evapotranspiration estimates derived from different methods on the Canadian Prairie.  Hydrological Processes 26:1467-1477



Hanesiak, J.M, Stewart, R.E., Bonsal, B.R., Harder, P., Lawford, R., Aider, R., Amiro, B.D., Atallah, E., Barr, A.G., Black, T.A., Bullock, P.R., Brimelow, J.C., Brown, R., Carmichael, H., Derksen, C., Flanagan,L.B., Gachon, P., Greene, H., Gyakum, J., Henson, W., Hogg, E.H., Kochtubajda, B., Leighton, H., Lin, C., Luo, Y., McCaughey, J.H., Meinert, A., Shabbar, A., Snelgrove, K., Szeto, K.,Trishchenko, A., van der Kamp, G., Wang, S., Wen, L., Wheaton, E., Wielki, C., Yang, Y., Yirdaw, S. and Zha, T. 2011. Characterization and summary of the 1999-2005 Canadian Prairie drought. Atmosphere Ocean (accepted 24 May 2011).

Mkhabela, M.S., Bullock, P.R., Raj, S., Wang, S. and Yang, Y. 2011. Crop yield forecasting in the Canadian prairies using MODIS NDVI data. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151: 385-393. (doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.11.012)

Bullied, W.J., Bullock, P.R., and Van Acker, R.C. 2011. Modeling the soil water retention characteristic with pedotransfer functions for shallow seedling recruitment. Soil Science 176(2): 57-72 (DOI: 10.1097/SS.0b013e31820647a9)

Nadler, A.J. and Bullock, P.R. 2011. Long-term changes in heat and moisture related to corn production on the Canadian Prairies. Climatic Change 104(2): 339-352. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02353.x)


Guo, X.W., Fernando, W.G.D., Bullock, P.R. and Sapirstein, H.D. 2010. Quantifying cropping practices in relation to inoculum levels of Fusarium graminearum on crop stubble. Plant Pathology 59: 1107-1113. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02353.x)

Gervais, M.D., Bullock, P.R., Mkhabela, M., Finlay, G.J. and Raddatz, R. 2010. Improvements to the accuracy of modelled soil water content from the 2nd generation Prairie agrometeorological model. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 90: 527-542.

Mkhabela, M.S., Bullock, P.R., Gervais, M.D., Finlay, G.J. and Sapirstein, H.D. 2010. Assessing indicators of agricultural drought impacts on spring wheat yield and quality on the Canadian prairies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 399-410. (DOI:10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.01.001)


Wang, H., Cutforth, H., Bullock, P.R., DePauw, R.M., McCaig, T., McLeod, G., Brandt, K. and Finlay G.J. 2009 Testing a nonlinear model for simulating the time of seedling emergence of wheat. Canadian Biosystems Engineering 51: 4.1-4.6.

Kahimba, F.C., Bullock, P.R., Sri Ranjan, R. and Cutforth, H.W. 2009. Evaluation of the SolarCalc model for simulating hourly and daily incoming solar radiation in the Northern Great Plains of Canada. Canadian Biosystems Engineering 51: 1.11-1.21.

Holzapfel, C.B., Lafond, G.P., Brandt, S.A., Bullock, P.R., Irvine, R.B., Morrison, M.J., May, W.E. and James, D.C. 2009. Estimating canola (Brassica napus L.) yield potential using an active optical sensor. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 89: 1-12

Saiyed, I., Bullock, P.R., Sapirstein, H.D., Finlay, G.J., and Jarvis, C.K. 2009 Thermal time models for estimating wheat phenological development and weather-based relationships to wheat quality. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 89: 429-439

Holzapfel, C.B., Lafond, G.P., Brandt, S.A., Bullock, P.R., Irvine, R.B., James, D., Morrison, M.J. and May, W.E. 2009. Optical sensors have potential for determining nitrogen fertilizer topdressing requirements of canola in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 89: 411-425.Jarvis, C.K., Sapirstein, H.D., Bullock, P.R., Naeem, H.A., Angadi, S.V. and Hussain, A. 2008. Models of Growing Season Weather Impacts on Breadmaking Quality of Spring Wheat from Producer Fields in Western Canada. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88(13): 2357–2370. (DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.3357)


Bullock, P.R., Whetter, D.A. and Fuller, L.G. 2008. Bromide redistribution as influenced by landscape morphology and pedogenic properties in a variable glacial till landscape: a quantitative examination. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 88: 491-499

Whetter, D.A., Bullock, P.R. and Fuller, L.G. 2008. Bromide redistribution as influenced by landscape morphology and pedogenic properties in a variable glacial till landscape: a qualitative examination. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 88: 477-490

Tiessen, K.H.D., Flaten, D.N., Bullock, P.R., Grant, C.A., Karamanos, R.E., Burton, D.L. and Entz, M.H. 2008. Interactive effects of landscape position and time of application on the response of spring wheat to fall-banded urea. Agronomy Journal 100: 557-563. (DOI:10.2134/agronj2006.0225)


Finlay, G.J., Bullock, P.R., Sapirstein, H.D., Naeem, H.A., Hussain, A., Angadi, S.V. and DePauw, R.M. 2007. Genotypic and environmental variation in grain, flour, dough and bread making characteristics of western Canadian spring wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 87: 679-690

Bullied, W.J., Van Acker, R.C. and Bullock, P.R. 2007. Field calibration of an impedance soil water probe for the shallow seedling recruitment zone across a field landscape with heterogeneous soil properties. Soil Use and Management 23: 262-268. (doi: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2007.00091.x)


Tiessen, K.H.D., Flaten, D.N., Bullock, P.R., Burton, D.L., Grant, C.A. and Karamanos, R.E. 2006. Transformation of fall-banded urea: application date, landscape position and fertilizer additive effects. Agronomy Journal 98:1460-1470. (DOI:10.2134/agronj2005.0304)

Whetter, D.A.,Bullock, P.R. and Eilers, R.G. 2006. Long-term solute redistribution in relation to landscape morphology and soil distribution in a variable glacial till landscape. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 86: 827-840


Loewen, M.D., Sharma, S, Tomy, G., Wang, F., Bullock, P.R., and Wania, F. 2005. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in the Himalaya. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 8(3):223–233. (DOI: 10.1080/14634980500220924)


Huang, Q., Akinremi, O.O., Sri Ranjan, R., Bullock, P.R. 2004. Evaluation and calibration of Profile Probe TM for soil water content measurement. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 84: 431-438

Bullock, P.R., Li, X. and Leonardi, L. 2004. Near-infrared spectroscopy for soil moisture determination in small soil volumes. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 84: 333-338.

Bullock, P.R. 2004. A comparison of growing season agrometeorological stress and single date Landsat NDVI for wheat yield estimation in west central Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 30(1): 101-108.


Raddatz, R.L., Shaykewich, C.F. and Bullock, P.R. 1994. Prairie crop yield estimates from modelled phenological development and water use. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 74: 429-436.

Brown, R.J., Brisco, B., Leconte, R., Major, D.J., Fischer, J.A., Reichert, G., Korporal, K.D., Bullock, P.R., Pokrant, H. and Culley, J. 1993. Potential applications of Radarsat data to agriculture and hydrology. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 19(4): 317-337.


Bullock, P.R. 1992. Operational estimates of Western Canadian grain production using NOAA AVHRR LAC data. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 18(1): 23-28.


Bullock, P.R. 1991. Seepage scald in southeastern Australia. Applied Geography 11: 59-81.


Bullock, P.R., de Jong, E. and Kiss, J.J. 1990. An assessment of rainfall erosion potential in Southern Saskatchewan from daily rainfall records. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 32: 17-24.

Henry, J.L., Bullock, P.R., Hogg, T.J. and Luba, L. 1985. Groundwater discharge from glacial and bedrock aquifers as a soil salinization factor in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 65: 749-768.


Environment Canada Climate Data Online http://www.climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca/climateData/canada_e.html
Manitoba Ag-Weather Program tgs.gov.mb.ca/climate/
WeatherFarm weatherfarm.weatherbug.com
Drought Watch www4.agr.gc.ca/AAFC-AAC/display-afficher.do?id=1256658312655&lang=eng

Contact Information:

Dr. Paul Bullock, Acting Head
Department of Soil Science
University of Manitoba
362 Ellis Building
13 Freedman Crescent
Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2
Phone: (204) 474-8666
Fax: (204) 474-7642
Email: paul.bullock@umanitoba.ca