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Arctic Blue Books Online

Preliminary Guide

To varying degrees, reports of British Arctic explorers were incorporated into the Sessional Papers of the Houses of Parliament, to become inherent components of the Parliamentary Papers. The contents of Sessional Pa pers were not limited to Arctic expeditions but covered the entire gamut of Parliamentary interests and activities, and occasionally bulked more than a hundred volumes annually. "The papers of the nineteenth century number over fifty thousand, and in the bound sets, take up several thousand volumes" (Ford and Ford, 1953, p. vii).

Only 47 papers in this period are known by the writer to concern the Canadian Arctic. Certain subjects recorded in these Sessional Papers warranted broader dissemination outside Parliament. These were printed in larger numbers, and were se parately bound usually in deep ultramarine paper wrappers to become known as Blue Books. These Blue Books "...give information of new discoveries; they are the official records of society; they gather from all quarters illustr ations of the evils which Parliament is asked to remedy; they almost invariably refer to what is novel, and are very often the first authentic accounts published of the actual progress of society, or the formation of those new phases with which it is the duty of legislation especially to deal" (Jones, 1904,
p. viii).

Parliamentary Papers

Parliamentary Papers have been defined as "...either papers of the House of Lords or papers of the House of Commons. Being presented during the session of Parliament, they are termed the Sessional Papers of either House" (Adam, 1913, p.v). Sessional Papers of each House of Parliament may be subdivided into two categories:

  1. Papers presented to the House in pursuance of an Act
    of Parliament, or in return to an order of the House.
  2. Papers presented by Command of Her Majesty.
The Sessional Papers concerning Arctic expeditions were all published as small folios (measuring 8.2 by 13.1 inches), although in later years other papers were bound as octavo volumes. Each House had its own system of numbering the papers. Workable collections of the Sessional Papers of the House of Lords are so rare, however, that a preference has developed amongst researchers to use the House of Commons Papers for reference purposes.

Following presentation, House of Commons Papers required a dated Order of the House to be printed. Hence, all but a few of the Command papers contain the inscription, "Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed...", on su ch and such a date. These House of Commons papers form a numbered series for each session beginning anew with paper No. 1 for the new session. To cite them by number, it is usually necessary to give the sessional year to identify a paper. Normally the Sessional Paper number is in chronological sequence throughout the year, but occasionally where a second session has begun in that same year, a new sequence will be started, for example, amongst the Arctic Papers, H.C. -501 of the 1852 Sessi on (1852k) was printed on 22 June 1852, and H.C. -82 of the
1852-53 Session (1852m) was printed on 20 December 1852, near the beginning of the new session.

Sessional Papers of the House of Commons record material covering a great variety of subjects, much of it being in the form of correspondence, journals, or as reports of Parliamentary Committees. "...I do not think that there is anyone who more values the labours of Parliamentary Committees than myself. They obtain for the country an extraordinary mass of valuable information which probably would not otherwise be at hand or available; and formed as they necessarily are of chosen men from the two most important bodies of the State, their Reports are pregnant with prudent and sagacious suggestions for the improvement of the administration of affairs." (Lord Beaconsfield in Hansard, 3rd Series, Vol. 235 (1877) p. 1478).

"Parliamentary Papers do not usually have authors or titles in the commonly accepted sense.... The paper cover and title-page may have the short title at its head and a longer title, consisting of the whole or part of the terms of reference, in its centre; and sometimes none of the words used in the short title...are to be found in the 'long' title." (Ford and Ford, 1953, p. ix). The use of the short and long title by two different authors for the same paper has occasionally been a source of ambiguity.

The pagination of volumes of Sessional Papers of both Houses was not done at the time of printing. The pages of some volumes were officially numbered in manuscript, but the same volumes were also issued completely bound, without being pagin ated. Some of these have found their ways into libraries unnumbered and others have been numbered in manuscript without reference to the official pagination which is given at the front of each volume. Where charts and maps have been inserted, they may i n one instance have been included in the pagination, and in another omitted. Although reference to the sessional year and volume may lead to the discovery of the paper sought, the pages of a paper within different copies of the same numbered volume may v ary somewhat. Consequently, reference to pages of Sessional Papers numbered in manuscript may be only approximate. However, each paper has its own printed pagination, which is a much more reliable one to use than that of the Sessional Papers.

There are occasional discrepancies in pagination even between papers which have printed page numbers. In 1852, the House of Commons issued the "Additional Papers Relative to the Arctic Expedition under the Orders of Captain Austin and Mr. Willi am Penny" /No. 1436/, which was numbered to page 368. An earlier edition of the same paper was dated 1851, and numbered 370 pages, yet the contents are apparently the same in both papers (see 1852b).


Command Papers

Command Papers are those Sessional Papers which were presented by command of Her Majesty the Queen, in order to convey to Parliament and to the public, information which the government of the day considered should be widely dis seminated. Until comparatively recent years, presentation to Parliament was the sole method of publication possessed by the government, with the exception of the London Gazette. This channel became increasingly used with the growing influen ce of public opinion, in order to inform and guide the opinions by which it existed.

During the nineteenth century, Command Papers greatly increased in numbers, as the government discovered the wisdom of issuing spontaneous information on matters of current public interest, without awaiting a request by Parliament. This out let was not available when the House was in recess, and in order to create a means of publication to cover urgently developing situations (such as those in foreign affairs), the agency of H.M. Stationery Office was created.

Command Papers in printed form were issued in numbered series, the numbers always being enclosed in square brackets. Three series have been developed to date, as follows:

  1. /1/ to /4222/, terminating with the Session of 1868-69.
  2. /C. 1/ to /C. 9550/, ending with the Session of 1899.
  3. /Cd. 1/ to /Cd. .../ in current use.
The Arctic Papers are confined to the first two of these series.

Public Sale of Parliamentary Papers

The publication of Parliamentary Papers in bound volumes appears to have begun in 1773 (Journal of the House of Commons, Vol. XXXIV, p. 385). Prior to 1800, House of Commons Papers comprise d the bulk of the published Parliamentary Papers, which by that date totalled only 110 volumes. By mid-century, the number of volumes of a single session exceeded this number, with Command Papers proportionately increasing.

Until the Session of 1836, Parliamentary Papers were not sold to the public. Prior to 1801, reports, estimates, etc. were published only in the Journals of the House of Lords and/or House of Commons. After several abortive efforts t o find a practical solution to the problem of publication, a Select Committee of the House of Lords, early in 1834, resolved that it would be "...generally convenient and might lead to a further saving of the public money", if the Parliamentary Printers w ere permitted to accept orders from booksellers for copies of the Papers printed for the use of the House. A Second Report (1835) by this same Committee recommended: "That the Reports and Parliamentary Papers printed for the use of t he House should be rendered accessible to the public by purchase, at the lowest possible price at which they can be furnished..." The final details with regards to printing and prices were settled in May 1837, with which public circulation of Parliame ntary Papers was finally established (Jones, 1904, pp. v-vii).



Arctic Papers

The Arctic Papers located to date by the writer number 47, all of which have been referred in the bibliography to the Sessional Papers of the House of Commons. Command Papers form only 30 per cent of the numerical tot al, but comprise 79 per cent of the 4,300-page bulk of all Arctic Papers.

Despite the reverence in which these papers are held by some authorities, there is at least one exception amongst them. Lieut. Commander R.T. Gould, R.N., has written of the Arctic Blue Books as follows: "They are a most singular co llection. A complete set /i.e., of the Arctic Blue Books/ would rival in bulk the four Shakespeare Folios, and contain even more words, of all kinds, than the minutes of the Royal Oak court-martial (happily left unprint ed). Nothing like selection appears to have been attempted --- every scrap of paper that found its way into official channels, from the most valuable hydrographic and other information down to begging letters and mediumistic ravings, was sure to be cast up in one of these Blue Books, in an order partly chronological, largely fortuitous, and, as a whole, defying analysis. In many cases the Blue Books must now be regarded as the best procurable authorities, the original documen ts from which they were compiled being no longer extant --- but they are by no means easy reading, and probably never were, even in their heyday, widely read" (Gould, 1928, p. 87).

Gould's opinion may be regarded as essentially correct; examples substantiating his statements are not difficult to find. That the Arctic Papers have continued to "defy analysis" for almost a century is a challenge which does us little cred it, since until quite recently, they have been the basic source of knowledge of broad areas in the Canadian Arctic.

These papers depended for their content upon the safe transmission of explorers' journals and reports from the Arctic to London by tenuously stretched nineteenth century lines of communication. The activities of a single expedition occasionally extended through several sessions of Parliament. Blue Books were hurriedly compiled for early presentation of the latest information on a subject of burning public interest to an avid reading public, and it is not surprising that they contain numero us errors, and much duplication. There are many instances where a letter or report has been printed twice, and at least one instance where one was printed three times.

The Arctic Papers may be grouped into four main sections:

  1. 1818 Northwest Passage and North Pole Rewards
    (1 paper)
  2. 1833-4 Captain John Ross's expedition
    (3 papers)
  3. 1846-58 Captain Sir John Franklin's expedition, and the subsequent search expeditions
    (35 papers)
  4. 1875-8 Captain Sir George Nares's expedition
    (8 papers)

(1) Northwest Passage and North Pole Rewards (1818)


The payment of cash rewards to encourage the solution of certain national problems of an exploratory or scientific nature was a principle established early in the eighteenth century, and became applied directly to Arctic problems by 1745. The single 9-pa ge paper given here was designed to excite interest in improved methods of establishing longitude at sea, as well as to renew national interest at the conclusion of the Napoleonic wars in the problems of the Northwest Passage, and of the North Pole.

1818
A Bill for more effectually discovering the Longitude at Sea, and encouraging Attempts to find a Northern Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and to approach the Northern Pole. Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 9 March 1818.

(9 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Bills Public, 1818, No. 99, Vol. I, pp. 151-9.

(2) Papers relating to the expedition of Captain John Ross
(1833-4)


The three papers issued in 1833-4 total only 52 pages and concern the expedition of Ross into Prince Regent Inlet and his remuneration for this service. Since the arrangements concerning the public distribution of Parliamentary Papers were not compl eted until 1837, and since these three papers antecede this date, they are seldom seen separated from the bound volumes of Sessional Papers.

1833
Estimates, &c. for Miscellaneous Services; for the Year ending
31 March 1834. Item 13. An Estimate of the Sum proposed to be granted in the year 1833, as a Contribution from the Public in aid of a Voyage of Discovery to the Polar Regions.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 3 April 1833.

(10 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Estimates and Accounts, 1833, No. 168, Vol. XXIV, pp. 451-60.

1834a
Report from Select Committee on the Expedition to the Arctic Seas, commanded by Captain John Ross, R.N.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 28 April 1834.

(40 pp., chart). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Reports from Committees, 1834, No. 250, Vol. XVIII, pp. 43-86.

1834b
Captain Ross. An Estimate of the Sum required to enable His Majesty to make a Grant to Captain Ross.

Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 18 July 1834.

(2 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Estimates and Accounts, 1834, No. 493, Vol. XLII,
pp. 457-8.


(3) Papers relating to the expedition of Captain Sir John Franklin (1846-58)

The papers in this group number 35, and form the most voluminous of the three sections, totaling 2979 pages. Beginning with a copy of Franklin's sailing orders, they also include the instructions given to James Clark Ross, initiating the search. They then proceed through a long series of instructions, proceedings, and journals of Anderson, Austin, Belcher, Collinson, De Haven, Frederick, Hooper, Inglefield, Kane, Kellett, Kennedy, Maguire, M'Clure, M'Cormick, Moore, Penny, Pullen, Rae, Richards on, James Clark Ross, John Ross, Saunders, Simpson, Stewart, Trollope, and others: it is a roll call of the Franklin Searchers, complete but for the records of the man who solved the problem that all concentrated upon --- M'Clintock, whose successful voya ge in the Fox in 1858-9, occurred after the British Admiralty had abandoned the search.

In addition, there are proceedings of boards of enquiries, and the expression of private opinions concerning the Franklin problem, as one man's mind after another was dredged for new proposed plans of search. Interspersed throughout, are copious ext racts of correspondence between various people and agencies engaged on the problem. Individual papers are of great variety of size and of subject. One deals with the "...Adjudication of £10,000 as a Reward for ascertaining the Fate of the Crews of Her Majesty's Ships Erebus and Terror;" another, investigating the possibility of food poisoning of Franklin and his men, mentions "the state of the Salt Provisions issued to Her Majesty's Ships on the West India Station during the Year 1851". From it all, came not the answer to the question of Franklin's fate, but the northward advance of our knowledge of the lands fringing the icy seas of the continent, the accomplishment of the Northwest Passage, and the recorded obs ervations of details of the coasts which, in most cases, have not been improved upon since. This series of papers dealing with the Franklin Search forms the richest source of written material extant concerning the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and remains in the same hopelessly disarranged condition in which it was bequeathed to us a century ago.

1846
Navy Estimates, for the year 1846-47. No. 1, Wages to Seamen and Marines, (A) Explanatory Statement (pp. 5-7).
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed,
13 February 1846.

(62 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and papers (2), Estimates, 1846, No. 51,
Vol. XXVI, pp. 183-246.

1848a
Arctic Expedition. Return to an Address of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 21 March 1848; -- for,
"Copies of Instructions to Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N.:, in reference to the Arctic Expedition of 1845:"
"And, Copies or Extracts of any Proceedings and Correspondence of the Admiralty in reference to Arctic Expeditions, from 1845 to the present Time, together with Copies of Charts illustrating the same."
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 13 April 1848.

(84 pp., 5 charts). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1847-48, No. 264,
Vol. XLI, pp. 163-256.

1848b
Arctic Expedition. Return to an Address of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 26 May 1848; -- for,
A "Copy of the Orders from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, under which Captain Sir James Clark Ross, R.N., has proceeded on an Expedition in search of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N."
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 7 June 1848.

(4 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1847-48, No. 386, Vol. XLI,
pp. 257-60.

1849a
Arctic Expedition (North Star). Expense of the Estimates of the Equipment of Her Majesty's Ship North Star; and Copy of Minute of the Board of Admiralty respecting the Equipment of the North Star, for the purpose of taking out a Supply of Provisions, &c. for the Crews of Her Majesty's Ships Investigator and Enterprise, employed on an expedition to the Arctic Regions.
(Presented to parliament by Her Majesty's Command.)
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 23 March 1849.

(2 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and papers, 1849, No. 152, Vol. XXXI,
pp. 203-4.

1849b
Arctic Expeditions. Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 15 March 1849; -- for,
Extracts "of any Proceedings or Correspondence of the Admiralty, in reference to the Arctic Expeditions. -- (In continuation of Parliamentary Papers, Nos. 264 and 386, of Session 1848, up to the present Time.)"
Admiralty, 27 March 1849, J.H. Hay, Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 30 March 1849.

(28 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1849, No. 188, Vol. XXXII,
pp. 177-204.

1849c
Arctic Expeditions. Further Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 15 March 1849: -- for,
Copies or Extracts "of any Proceedings or Correspondence of the Admiralty, in reference to the Arctic Expeditions. -- (In continuation of Parliamentary Papers, Nos. 264 and 386 of Session 1848, up to the present time)"
Return of the Opinions of the most experienced Officers connected with the Arctic Expeditions, on the Necessity of sending a Ship to the Entrance of Lancaster Sound, with Supplies for Sir James Ross's Exp edition; and their joint Opinion as to certain Measures proposed to be adopted.
Admiralty, 19 April 1849, T. Crofton Croker, For the Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 20 April 1849.

(12 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1849. No. 188-II, Vol. XXXII, pp. 205-16.

1849d
Arctic Expedition. Return to an Address of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 11 June 1849: -- for,
"Copy of any Communication from Her Majesty's Consul at Washington to her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, in reference to Measures adopted by the Government of the United States, on the subject of the Expedition sent forth by this country, under Command of Sir John Franklin, to the Arctic Seas."
Correspondence with Her Majesty's Charge´ d'Affaires at Washington, respecting the Intention of the Government of the United States to send Two Ships of War in Search of
Sir John Franklin's Expedition to the Arctic Seas.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 13 June 1849.

(2 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1849, No. 387, Vol. XXXII,
pp. 217-8.

1849e
Arctic Expedition. Copy of a Report from Sir John Richardson, dated Fort Confidence, Great Bear Lake, 16th September 1848, reporting his Proceedings in Search of Sir John Franklin's Expedition.
(Presented to Parliament by Her Majesty's Command)
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 12 July 1849.

(4 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and papers, 1849, No. 497, Vol. XXXII, pp. 219-22.

1850a
Arctic Expedition. Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 5 February 1850; -- for,
Copies "of any Reports or Statements from the Officers employed in the Arctic Expeditions, or from any other Persons, which have been laid before the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, in respect to the Resumption of the Search for Sir John Franklin's Expedition:"
"Of any Plan or Plans of Search, whether by Ships or Boats, up to the present Date:"
"Copy or Extracts from any Correspondence or Proceedings of the Board of Admiralty, in relation to the Arctic Expeditions (since the Date of the last Return to this House in 1849):"
"Copies of the Orders issued by the Board of Admiralty to the Captains Collinson, Kellett and Moore, and to Lieutenant Pullen; and also, Copy of the Instructions given to Dr. Rae, through the Hudso n's Bay Company:"
"Of any Reports made by any Officer or Officers employed in the late Expeditions, and addressed to the Board of Admiralty:"
"And, of the latest Chart of the Polar Sea compiled by Order of the Board of Admiralty -- (in continuation of Parliamentary Papers, Nos. 264 and 386, of Session 1848, and of Nos. 188 and 387, of Session 1849)."
Admiralty, 4 March 1850. J.H. Hay, Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 5 March 1850.

(vi Ý 157 pp., sketch, 2 charts). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1850, No. 107, Vol. XXXV, pp. 175-342.

1850b
Arctic Expedition. Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 12 April 1850; -- for,
An Account "of the Charge for the Purchase, Repair, and Outfit of the Vessels now fitting for the Arctic Expedition".
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 23 May 1850.

(2pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1850, No. 368, Vol. XXXV,
pp. 343-4.

1850c
Arctic Expeditions. Return to an Address of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 10 May 1850; -- for,
"Copies of Instructions from the Admiralty to Captain Austin, R.N., C.B., and to any other Officers in Her Majesty's Service engaged in Arctic Expeditions, since the Date of the last Parliamentary Return."
Admiralty, 28 May 1850. J.H. Hay, Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 31 May 1850.

(6 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Reports and Papers, 1850, No. 397, Vol. XXV,
pp. 345-50.

1851a
Arctic Expeditions. Return to an Address of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 7 February 1851; -- for,
"Copy or Extracts from any Correspondence or Proceedings of the Board of Admiralty, in relation to the Arctic Expeditions, including those more recently sent forth in resumption of the Search for that under the Command of Sir John Franklin:"
"Copies of any Instructions from the Admiralty to any Officers in Her Majesty's Service, engaged in Arctic Expeditions, since the Date of the last Parliamentary Return on the said subject (in continuation of Parliamentary papers, No. 1 07 and No. 397 of Session 1850):"
"And, Copy or Extracts from any Correspondence or Communications from the Government of the United States, or from Her Majesty's Minister at Washington, in relation to any Search to be made on the part of the United States, or f rom its Territory, for the Expedition under Sir John Franklin."
Admiralty, 7 March 1851, J.H. Hay, Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 7 March 1851.

(iv Ý 106 pp., 2 charts). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1851, No. 97, Vol. XXXIII, pp. 195-308.

1852a
Arctic Expeditions. Report of the Committee Appointed by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to Inquire into and Report on the Recent Arctic Expeditions in Search of Sir John Franklin, together with the Mi nutes of Evidence taken before the Committee, and Papers connected with the Subject.
Presented to Both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. London. Printed by George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen's Most Ex cellent Majesty. For Her Majesty's Stationery Office: 1852.

(lix Ý 199 pp., 2 sketches, 2 charts). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1852, Vol. L, No. /1435/, pp. 1-268.

1852b
Additional Papers Relative to the Arctic Expedition under the Orders of Captain Austin and Mr. William Penny.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. London: Printed by George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen's Most Exc ellent Majesty. For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1852.

(iii 368pp., 66 sketches, 28 charts). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1852, Vol. L, No. /1436/, pp. 269-668.

1852c
Arctic Expedition. Further Correspondence and Proceedings connected with the Arctic Expedition.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament of Command of Her Majesty. London: Printed by George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen's Most Exce llent Majesty. For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1852.

(216 pp., 9 sketches, 4 charts). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and papers, 1852, Vol. L, No. /1449/, pp. 669-890.

1852d
Copy of an Account of the Naval Receipt and Expenditure, for the year ended the 31st March 1851.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed,
3 February 1852.

(6 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1852, No. 14, Vol. XXX,
pp. 191-6.

1852e
Preserved Meats (Navy). Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 5 February 1852; -- for,
Returns "showing the Date and Terms of all Contracts for Preserved Meat for the Use of Her Majesty's Navy with Goldner; also the Quantities issued since the commencement of the above Contracts; specifying the Quantities fit for Use, as well as the Quantities either Condemned or returned into Store as unfit for use, from any of Her Majesty's Stores or Ships, whether at Home or Abroad:
"Complaints when first made; and whether, after such Complaints, further Contracts were entered into with the same Parties:"
"Whether these Meats were issued to the Arctic Voyagers:"
"Whether Captain Austin's Stores were examined and found bad; and if so, were they served from Goldner's Contract:"
"Of the Quantity of Cases, if any, the Contractor has been allowed to withdraw from her Majesty's Stores after having supplied the same, stating how long such Cases had been in Store:"
"Of Complaints, if any, made of the state of the Salt Provisions issued to Her Majesty's Ships on the West India Station during the Year 1851; showing the Extra Quantity issued to make up the Regulated Allowance, and the Quantities Condemned or Sold on Her Majesty's account:"
"And the Contract Prices of Beef and Pork for the Years 1848, 1849, 1850, and 1851."
Admiralty, 12 February 1852. J.H. Hay, Chief Clerk,
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed,
13 February 1852.

(6 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and papers, 1852, No. 59, Vol. XXX,
pp. 317-22.

1852f
Arctic Expeditions. Return to an Address of the Honourable, The House of Commons, dated 20 February 1852; -- for,
"Papers in connection with the late Arctic Expeditions, or with any which may be in preparation. -- (In continuation of the Papers presented to The House on the 7th March 1851, and on the
3rd February 1852.)"
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 27 February 1852.

(18 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1852, No. 115, Vol. L,
pp. 891-908.

1852g
Arctic Expedition. Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 6 April 1852; -- for,
Copy "of the Report of Dr. Rae, of the Proceedings of the Arctic Searching Expedition under his Command, since the 10th day of June last, with a Sketch of his Route."
Admiralty, 6 April 1852, J.H. Hay, Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 6 April 1852.

(12 pp., chart). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1852, No. 248, Vol. L,
pp. 909-22.

1852h
Arctic Expedition. Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 4 May 1852; -- for,
A Return "of the Sailing Orders given to Sir Edward Belcher relating to the Arctic Expedition."
Admiralty, 6 May 1852. J.H. Hay, Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 7 May 1852.

(4 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1852, No. 317, Vol. L, pp. 935-8.

1852j Arctic Expedition. Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 6 April 1852; -- for,
A Copy "of any further Correspondence which has been transmitted to the Admiralty between Admiral Sir John Ross and the Danish Inspector-General, touching the Fate of the Expedition under Sir John Franklin."
Admiralty, 18 May 1852. J.H. Hay, Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 21 May 1852.

(12 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1852, No. 390, Vol. L,
pp. 923-34.

1852k
Vessels in the North Atlantic. Return to an Address of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 4 June 1852; -- for,
"Copies of Communications between the Admiralty and any Public Authorities at Home and Abroad, in reference to certain Vessels observed on an Iceberg in the North Atlantic in 1851, and supposed to have been Abandoned."
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 22 June 1852.

(40 pp. , 2 sketches, chart). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1852, No. 501, Vol. L, pp. 939-82.

1852m
Arctic Expeditions. Return to an Address of the Honourable The House of Commons, date 19 November 1852; -- for,
"Copies of any Correspondence received at the Admiralty from Sir Edward Belcher's Squadron, detailing the Proceedings thereof since leaving Greenhithe, and from any other of the Arctic Expeditions since the Dates o f the last Returns from the same respectively:"
"Of any Communications received at the Admiralty from Mr. Kennedy, of the Prince Albert Discovery Ship:"
"Of Correspondence from Commander Inglefield, of the Screw Vessel Isabel, reporting his Discoveries and Proceedings in the Polar Sea:"
"Of any Plans or Suggestions of Search for Rear-Admiral Sir John Franklin, and the Ships and Crews of his Expedition:"
"And, of any further Correspondence on the subject of the Arctic Regions, since the last laid before this House in the late Session (in continuation of Arctic Papers, Session 1852)."
Admiralty, 16 December 1852. J.H. Hay, Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed,
20 December 1852.

(iv Ý 88 pp., 3 charts). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1852-53, No. 82,
Vol. LX, pp. 125-224.

1853a
Ship Rattlesnake. Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 27 April 1853; -- for,
Copies of Extracts "of any Minutes or other Documents connected with the Selection by the late Board of Admiralty of the Ship Rattlesnake, in preference to a Steamer, for the purpose of endeavouring to communicate with the Pl over:"
"And, Copies of Instructions given by the Board of Admiralty to the Captain of the Rattlesnake."
Admiralty, 3 May 1853. J.H. Hay, Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 4 May 1853.

(4 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1852-53, No. 444, Vol. LX,
pp. 75-8.

1853b
Arctic Regions. Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 1 August 1853; -- for,
Copies "of the Sailing Orders and Instructions to Commander Inglefield, of Her Majesty's Ship Phoenix, employed in the Arctic Regions;"
"Of the Instructions to Mr. Kennedy, in command of the Isabel, which vessel is also employed in the Arctic Regions:"
"Of any Orders and Instructions given to Captain Collinson, of the Enterprise, of a later date that the 15th day of January 1850:"
"And, of any Reports received from Captain Collinson of a later date than the 9th day of July 1851."
Admiralty, 19 August 1853. John Jones Dyer, Acting Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 20 August 1853.

(4 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1852-53, No. 1013, Vol. LX,
pp. 121-4.

1854a
Papers Relative to the Recent Arctic Expeditions in Search of Sir John Franklin and the Crews of H.M.S. Erebus and Terror.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. London: Printed by George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen's Most Exc ellent Majesty. For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1854.

(225 pp., 26 sketches, 5 charts). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1854, No. /1725/, Vol. XLII, pp. 101-338.

1854b
Arctic Expeditions. Return to an Address of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 17 March 1854; -- for,
"Copy of Letter addressed by Lady Franklin to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, dated the 24th day of February 1854, in reference to their Lordships' Announcement in the London Gazette of the 20th day of January 1854, re specting the Officers and Crews of Her Majesty's Ships Erebus and Terror; and of a Copy of such Notice."
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 24 March 1854.

(14 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1854, No. 129, Vol. XLII,
pp.339-52.

1854c
Arctic Expedition. Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 4 April, 1854, -- for,
Copies "of any Instructions which have either been Issued, or hereafter may be Issued, during the present Season, to the Commanders of Her Majesty's Ships now engaged in the Arctic Regions in the Search for Sir John Franklin' s Expedition."
Admiralty, 7 April 1854. John Jones Dyer, Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 7 April 1854.

(4 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1854, No. 171, Vol. XLII,
pp. 353-6.

1854d
Arctic Expedition. Instructions from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty for the Arctic Expedition.
(Presented to Parliament by Her Majesty's Command.)
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 28 April 1854.

(4 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1854, No. 200, Vol. XLII,
pp. 357-60.


1855a
Further Papers relative to the recent Arctic Expeditions in search of Sir John Franklin and the Crews of H.M.S. Erebus and Terror.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. January 1855. London: Printed by George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, Printers t o the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty. For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1855.

(iv Ý 958 pp., 74 sketches, 37 charts). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers,
1854-55, No. /1898/, Vol. XXXV, pp. 1-1010.

1855b
Estimates &c. Civil Services, for the Year ending 31 March, 1856. Item 43 -- Arctic Discoverers (Rewards). Item 44 -- Monument to Sir John Franklin.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 27 March 1855.

(46 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1854-55, No. 140-VII,
Vol. XXXI, pp. 619-66.

1855c
Arctic Expeditions. Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 29 March 1855, -- for,
A Return "of the Cost of the Further Papers relative to the recent Arctic Expeditions, presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty in January 1855; distinguishing under each head the Expense of Paper, Printing, Lit hographing of Charts and Illustrations, and other Expenses, and of the Number of Copies Printed, and Distribution of the Same."
Her Majesty's Stationery Office 13 April 1855. J.R. McCulloch, Comptroller.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 18 April 1855.

(2 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1854-55, No. 181, Vol. XLIV,
pp. 189-90.

1855d
Report from the Select Committee on Arctic Expedition; together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, and Appendix.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 20 July 1855.

(xx Ý 38 pp., chart). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Reports from Committees, 1854-55, No. 409, Vol. VII, pp. 1-60.


1856
Further Papers Relative to the Recent Arctic Expeditions in Search of Sir J. Franklin, and the Crews of Her Majesty's Ships Erebus and Terror; including the Reports of Dr. Kane and Messrs. Anderson and Stewart . And Correspondence relative to the Adjudication of £10,000 as a Reward for ascertaining the Fate of the Crews of Her Majesty's Ships Erebus and Terror. (In continuation of Papers present ed in September 1854-5).
Presented to The House of Commons, 1856. London: Printed by Harrison and Sons.

(vi Ý 96 pp., 2 charts). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1856, No. /2124/,
Vol. XLI, pp. 111-216.


1858
Correspondence respecting H.M.S. Resolute, and the Arctic Expedition.
Presented to The House of Commons by Command of Her Majesty, in pursuance of their Address dated May 21, 1858. London: Printed by Harrison and Sons.

(ii Ý 40 pp., chart). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1857-58, No. /2416/, Vol. LX, pp. 11-52.

(4) Papers relating to the expedition of Captain Sir George Nares (1875-8)



The fourth and last section into which this series of Arctic Papers divides itself is concerned with the expedition led by Sir George S. Nares into northeastern Ellesmere Island in 1875-6. Here again may be found details of the preparations made to ensure the success of the venture, the cost of which approached £100,000. The Journals and Proceedings (1877a) record, amongst other things, Markham's effort towards the pole. Other papers deal in great detail with the health of both men and dogs, particular attention having been paid to the outbreak of scurvy with which the expedition was attacked following its winter in the field. The 8 papers comprising this section total 1,280 pages.

1875a
Arctic Expedition. Papers and Correspondence relating to the Equipment and fitting out of the Arctic Expedition of 1875, including Report of the Admiralty Arctic Committee.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. London: Printed by George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen's Most Ex cellent Majesty. For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1875.

(40 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1875, No. /C.-1153./, Vol. XLV, pp. 523-62.

1875b
Chart to Accompany Papers and Correspondence Relating to the Equipment and Fitting out of the Arctic Expedition of 1875.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. London: Printed by George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen's Most Ex cellent Majesty. For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1875.

(2 pp. Ý chart). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1875, No. /C.-1153.-I/,
Vol. XLV, pp. 563-6.

1875c
Arctic Expedition. Supplementary Estimate of Her Majesty's Navy, for the Year 1874-75. An Estimate of the Sum required to defray the Charges on account of the Arctic Expedition which shall come in course of Payment in the Y ear ending the 31st March 1875.
(Presented to Parliament by Her Majesty's Command).
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed,
15 February 1875.


(4 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1875, No. 44, Vol. XLV,
pp. 231-4.


1876
Arctic Expedition. Further Papers and Correspondence in Continuation of Parliamentary Paper /C.-1153./ of 1875.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. Admiralty, July 1876. London: Printed by George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty. For Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1876.

(25 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1876, No. /C.-1560./, Vol. XLV,
pp. 463-88.

1877a
Arctic Expedition, 1875-6. Journals and Proceedings of the Arctic Expedition, 1875-6, under the Command of
Captain Sir George S. Nares, R.N., K.C.B. /In continuation of Parliamentary Papers, C 1153 of 1875, and C 1560 of 1876./
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty, 1877. London: Printed for Her Majesty's Stationery Office, by Harrison & Sons, Printers in Ordin ary to Her Majesty, St. Martin's Lane.

(vii Ý 484 pp., 44 illustrations, 18 charts). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1877, No. /C.-1636./, Vol. LVI, pp. 1-556.

1877b
Report of the Committee appointed by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to enquire into
The Causes of the Outbreak of Scurvy in the recent Arctic Expedition;
The adequacy of the provision made by the Admiralty in the way of Food, Medicine, and Medical Comforts; and
The propriety of the Orders given by the Commander of the Expedition for provisioning the Sledge Parties.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty, 1877. London: Printed for Her Majesty's Stationery Office, by Harrison & Sons, Printers in Ordin ary to Her Majesty, St. Martin's Lane.

(lv Ý 505 pp., 9 illustrations). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1877,
No. /C.-1722./, Vol. LVI, pp. 557-1136.

1877c
Arctic Expedition (Scurvy). Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 7 June 1877; for,
Copy "of the Letter addressed by the Admiralty to Captain Sir Georges S. Nares, R.N., K.C.B., on the subject of the outbreak of Scurvy in the Arctic Expedition, 1875-6."
Admiralty, 7 June 1877. Thos. Wolley, Chief Clerk.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 7 June 1877.

(2 pp.) Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1877, No. 246, Vol. LVI,
pp. 1137-8.

1878
Arctic Expedition. Results derived from the Arctic Expedition, 1875-76.
I. - Physical Observations by Captain Sir George Nares, R.N., and Captain Feilden, &c.
II. - Medical Report on the Eskimo Dog Disease, by Fleet Surgeon B. Ninnis, M.D.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. London: Printed by George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen's Most Exc ellent Majesty. For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1878.

(156 pp., 8 coloured ills., 7 graphs). Great Britain, Parliament, Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Accounts and Papers, 1878,
No. /C.-2176./, Vol. LII, pp. 615-800.

The above bibliography of 47 items has been compiled over the past several years largely from searches made in the following libraries, through the kind courtesies of those whose names are given in parentheses:

American Geographical Society Library, New York, N.Y.
(Miss Nordis Felland)

Baker Library, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.
(Mr. Richard W. Morin)

Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
(Miss Marie Tremaine)

New York Public Library, New York, N.Y.
(Mr. F.X. Grondin)

Stefansson Library, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.
(Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson)

Through the kindness of Mr. T.E. Monette, all items have been checked against the Sessional Papers of the British House of Commons in the Library of Parliament, Ottawa. The Sessional
Papers of the House of Lords were not accessible at any of the libraries visited, so that it has been possible to check only a few of the items given here against corresponding publications by the House of Lords.

The assistance provided by Mr. John F. Phillips, of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, England, is also gratefully acknowledged.


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