Dr. Lyle McKinnon
  Assistant Professor of Medical Microbiology and Community Health Sciences
Research Associate, Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA)
Honorary Lecturer, University of Nairobi

Degrees: B.Sc. (Winnipeg, 2001), Ph.D. (Manitoba, 2009)

Mailing Address: Department of Medical Microbiology, Room 504 - 745 Bannatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9

Tel: (204) 975-7708 Fax: (204) 789-3926
E-mail: lyle.mckinnon@umanitoba.ca

Dr. McKinnon is currently accepting MSc and PhD students

Research Interests:

  • Mucosal immunology of the gastrointestinal and female reproductive tracts
  • Cell mediated immunity and immune cell homing
  • HIV transmission and pathogenesis
  • Epidemiology of HIV transmission in key populations in Africa

To review Dr. McKinnon's PubMed articles, please click here

Publication list:

1. Lyle R. McKinnon, Quarraisha Abdool Karim. Factors driving the HIV epidemic in southern Africa. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep (In Press).
2. Souradet Y. Shaw, Robert Lorway, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Sushena Reza-Paul, Elsabe du Plessis, Lyle McKinnon, Laura H. Thompson, Shajy Isac, Banadakoppa M. Ramesh, Reynold Washington, Stephen Moses, and James F. Blanchard. Descriptive epidemiology of factors associated with HIV infections among men and transgender women who have sex with men in South India. LGBT Health (In Press).
3. Alexander S. Zevin, Lyle McKinnon, Adam Burgener, Nichole R. Klatt. Microbial translocation and microbiome dsybiosis in HIV-associated immune activation. Current Opinion in HIV/AIDS (2016) Mar;11(2):182-90.
4. Ayesha BM Kharsany, Cherie Cawood, David Khanyile, Anneke Grobler, Lyle R. McKinnon, Natasha Samsunder, Janet A Frohlich, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Adrian Puren, Alex Welte, Gavin George, Kaymarlin Govender, Carlos Toledo, Zawadi Chipeta, Lycias Zembe, Mary T Glenshaw, Lorna Madurai. Strengthening HIV surveillance in the antiretroviral therapy era: Rationale and design of a longitudinal study to monitor HIV prevalence and incidence in the uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. BMC Public Health (2015) Nov 20;15:1149..
5. Lindi Masson, Amy L. Salkinder, Abraham Jacobus Olivier, Lyle R. McKinnon, Koleka Mlisana, Tom Scriba, David Lewis, Francesca Little, Katharina Ronacher, Lynette Denny, Salim S. Abdool Karim, and Jo-Ann S. Passmore. Relationship between female genital tract infections and local Th17 cell populations and IL-17 production. Immunology (2015) Dec;146(4):557-67..
6. Kenzie D. M. Birse, Amy L. Cole, Taha Hirbod, Lyle McKinnon, Terry B. Ball, Garrett R. Westmacott, Joshua Kimani, Frank Plummer, Alexander M. Cole, Adam Burgener, Kristina Broliden. Non-cationic proteins are associated with HIV neutralizing activity in genital secretions of female sex workers. PLoS ONE (2015) Jun 19;10(6):e0130404.
7. Kelly B. Arnold, Adam Burgener, Kenzie Birse, Laura Romas, Laura J. Dunphy, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Max Abou, Jessie Kwatampora, Billy Nyanga, Joshua Kimani, Lenine Liebenberg, Lindi Masson, Salim S. Abdool Karim, Jo-Ann Passmore, Douglas A. Lauffenburger, Rupert Kaul, Lyle R. McKinnon. Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines in the female reproductive tract are associated with altered expression of proteases, mucosal barrier proteins, and an influx of HIV susceptible target cells. Mucosal Immunology (2016) Jan;9(1):194-205.
8. Lyle R. McKinnon, Preston Izulla, Julius Munyao, Souradet Shaw, Richard Gichuki, Nico Nagelkerke, Gloria Gakii, Lawrence Gelmon, Rupert Kaul, Joshua Kimani. Risk factors for HIV acquisition in a prospective Nairobi-based female sex worker cohort. AIDS and Behavior (2015) Dec;19(12):2204-13.
9. Preston Izulla, Lyle R. McKinnon, Julius Munyao, Naomi Ireri, Nico Nagelkerke, Gloria Gakii, Lawrence Gelmon, Mabel Nangami, Rupert Kaul, Joshua Kimani. Repeat use of post exposure prophylaxis for HIV among Nairobi-based female sex workers following sexual exposure. AIDS and Behavior (In Press).
10. Rupert Kaul, Jessica Prodger, Vineet Joag, Brett Shannon, Sergey Yegorov and Lyle McKinnon. Inflammation and the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
(2015) Jun;12(2):216-22.
11. Sinaye Ngcapu, Lindi Masson, Sengeziwe Sibeko, Lise Werner, Lyle R. McKinnon, Koleka Mlisana, Muki Shey, Natasha Samsunder, Salim Abdool Karim, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Jo-Ann S. Passmore. Lower concentrations of chemotactic cytokines and soluble innate factors in the lower female genital tract associated with use of injectable hormonal contraceptive. Journal of Reproductive Immunology (2015) Aug;110:14-21.
12. Vineet R. Joag, Lyle R. McKinnon, Jun Liu, Segen T. Kidane, Mark H. Yudin, Billy Nyanga, Steve Kimwaki, Kate E. Besel, James O. Obila, Sanja Huibner, Julius O. Oyugi, James Arthos, Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani, Mario A. Ostrowski, Rupert Kaul, Toronto HIV Research Group. Identification of preferential CD4+ T cell targets for HIV infection in the cervix. Mucosal Immunology (In Press).
13. Derek R. Stein, Souradet Y. Shaw, Lyle R. McKinnon, Max Abou, Stuart J. McCorrister, Garrett R. Westmacott, Keith R. Fowke, Francis A. Plummer, T. Blake Ball. Mx2 expression is associated with reduced susceptibility to HIV infection in highly exposed HIV seronegative sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS (2015) Jan 2;29(1):35-41.
14. Lyle R. McKinnon, Billy Nyanga, Connie J. Kim, Preston Izulla, Jessie Kwatampora, Makobu Kimani, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Nelly Mugo, Jennifer Smith, A. Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani, Rupert Kaul. Early HIV-1 infection is associated with reduced frequencies of cervical Th17 cells. JAIDS (2015) Jan 1;68(1):6-12.
15. Lindi Masson, Koleka Mlisana, Francesca Little, Lise Werner, Nonhlanhla N. Mkhize, Katharina Ronacher, Hoyam Gamieldien, Carolyn Williamson, Lyle R. McKinnon, Gerhard Walzl, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S. Abdool Karim, Jo-Ann S. Passmore. Defining genital tract cytokine signatures of sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis in women at high risk of HIV infection. Sexually Transmitted Infections (2014) Dec;90(8):580-7.
16. Lyle R McKinnon, Quarraisha Abdool Karim. Honing in on enteric fever: The use of metabolomics could lead to improved diagnostics for enteric fever. eLife (2014); (3): e03545.
17. Koleka Mlisana, Lise Werner, Nigel J. Garrett, Lyle R. McKinnon, Francois van Loggerenberg, Jo-Ann Passmore, Thumbi Ndung’u, Clive M. Gray, Lynn Morris, Carolyn Williamson and Salim S. Abdool Karim. Rapid disease progression in HIV-1 subtype C infected South African women. Clinical Infectious Diseases (2014) Nov;59(9):1322-31.
18. Cosnet L. Rametse, Abraham J. Olivier, Lindi Masson, Shaun Barnabas, Lyle R. McKinnon, Sinaye Ngcapu, Lenine J. Liebenberg, Shameem Z. Jaumdally, Clive M. Gray, Heather B. Jaspan, and Jo-Ann S. Passmore. Role of semen in altering the balance between inflammation and tolerance in the female genital tract: Does it contribute to HIV risk? Viral Immunology (2014) 27(5):200-6
19. Nico Nagelkerke, Paul Arora, Prabhat Jha, Brian Williams, Lyle McKinnon, Sake J. de Vlas. The rise and fall of HIV in high prevalence countries: A challenge for mathematical modeling. PLoS Comput Biol (2014) 10(3):e1003459.
20. Lyle R. McKinnon and Sean M. Hughes, Jeffrey A. Martinson, Jill Plants, Kirsten E. Brady, Pamela P. Gumbi, Devin J. Adams, Lucia Vojtech, Christine G. Galloway, Michael Fialkow, Gretchen Lentz, Dayong Gao, Zhiquan Shu, Billy Nyanga, Preston Izulla, Joshua Kimani, Steve Kimwaki, Alfred Bere, Zoe Moodie, Alan L. Landay, Jo-Ann Passmore, Rupert Kaul, Richard M. Novak, M. Julie McElrath and Florian Hladik. Optimizing viable leukocyte sampling from the female genital tract for clinical trials: an international multi-site study. PLoS ONE (2014) 9(1):e85675. Part of the Mucosal Immunology Group Collection.
21. Lyle R. McKinnon and Gloria Gakii, Jennifer A Juno, Preston Izulla, Julius Munyao, Naomi Ireri, Cecilia W. Kariuki, Souradet Y. Shaw, Nico J.D. Nagelkerke, Lawrence Gelmon, Charles Wachihi, Rupert Kaul, Rob Lorway, Joshua Kimani. High HIV risk in a cohort of male sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya. Sexually Transmitted Infections (2014) 90(3):237-42.
22. Muki Shey, Nigel Garrett, Lyle McKinnon, Jo-Ann Passmore. The role of dendritic cells in driving genital tract inflammation and HIV transmission risk: are there opportunities to intervene? Innate Immunity (In Press).
23. Connie J. Kim, Lyle R. McKinnon, Colin Kovacs, Gabor Kandel, Sanja Huibner, Duncan Chege, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Erika Benko, Mona Loutf, Mario Ostrowski, Rupert Kaul. Mucosal Th17 cell function is altered during HIV infection and is an independent predictor of systemic immune activation. Journal of Immunology (2013) 191:2164-73.
24. Aida Sivro, Lyle R. McKinnon, Ruey-Chyi Su, Joshua Kimani, Francis A. Plummer, T. Blake Ball. Effect of IRF-1 polymorphisms on HIV disease progression. PLoS ONE (2013) 8(6):e66253.
25. Tae Joon Yi and Brett Shannon, Jessica Prodger, Lyle McKinnon, Rupert Kaul. Genital Immunology and HIV susceptibility in young women. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (2013) 69 Suppl 1:74-9.
26. Joshua Kimani, Lyle R. McKinnon, Charles Wachihi, Judith Kusimba, Gloria Gakii, Sarah Birir, Mercy Muthui, Anthony Kariri, Festus K. Muriuki, Nicholas Muraguri, Helgar Musyoki, T. Blake Ball, Rupert Kaul, Larry Gelmon. Enumeration of sex workers in the central business district of Nairobi, Kenya. PLoS ONE (2013) 8(1):e54354.
27. Preston Izulla and Lyle R. McKinnon (co-first authors), Julius Munyao, Joshua Parmeres, Solomon Kamuti, Nico Nagelkerke, Sarah Karanja, Gloria Gakii, Charity Muthoni, Winnie Koima, Rosalia Kioko, Charles Wachihi, Lawrence Gelmon, Rupert Kaul, Joshua Kimani. HIV post-exposure prophylaxis in an urban population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. JAIDS (2013) 62(2):220-5.
28. Lyle R. McKinnon, Nico J. Nagelkerke, Rupert Kaul, Souradet Y. Shaw, Rupert Capina, Ma Luo, Anthony Kariri, Winnie Apidi, Makobu Kimani, Charles Wachihi, Walter Jaoko, A. Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer. HIV-1 clade D is associated with increased rates of CD4 decline in a Kenyan cohort. PLoS ONE (2012) 7(11):e49797.
29. Duncan Chege, Yijie Chai, Sanja Huibner, Taylor Kain, Charles Wachihi, Makubo Kimani, Samson Barasa, Lyle R. McKinnon, Festus K. Muriuki, Anthony Kariri, Walter Jaoko, Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer, Rupert Kaul. Blunted IL17/IL22 and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses in the Genital Tract and Blood of HIV-Exposed, Seronegative Female Sex Workers in Kenya. PLoS ONE (2012) 7(8): e43670.
30. Mawji E and McKinnon LR (co-first authors), Wachihi C, Chege D, Thottingal P, Muthama E, Kariri A, Plummer FA, Ball TB, Ngugi EN, Kimani J, Gelmon L, Kaul R. Antiretroviral therapy in a core transmission group of Kenyan female sex workers is not associated with increased sexual risk taking. BMJ Open (2012) 2(2): e000565.
31. Lyle R. McKinnon, Rupert Kaul. Quality and quantity: mucosal targets and HIV susceptibility. Current Opinion in HIV/AIDS (2012) Mar;7(2):195-202.
32. Lyle R. McKinnon, Billy Nyanga, Duncan Chege, Preston Izulla, Makobu Kimani, Sanja Huibner, Lawrence Gelmon, Katharine E. Block, Claudia Cicala, A. Omu Anzala, James Arthos, Joshua Kimani, Rupert Kaul. Characterization of a human cervical CD4+ T cell subset co-expressing multiple markers of HIV susceptibility. Journal of Immunology (2011) Dec 1;187(11):6032-42.
33. Enterprise-OCTAVE Young and Early Career Investigators (Wendy A. Burgers, Amapola Manrique, David Masopust, Lyle R. McKinnon, Matthew R. Reynolds, Morgane Rolland, Catherine Blish, Gerald K. Chege, Rhonda Curran, William Fischer, Carolina Herrera, Noah Sather). Measurements of immune responses for establishing correlates of vaccine protection against HIV. AIDS Research Human Retroviruses (Published ahead of print, Sep 23, 2011)
34. Lyle R. McKinnon, Rupert Kaul, Joshua Kimani, Nico J. Nagelkerke, Charles Wachihi, Keith R. Fowke, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is prospectively associated with delayed disease progression. Immunology and Cell Biology (2012) 90(3):346-51.
35. Rupert Kaul, Craig R. Cohen, Duncan Chege, Tae Joon Yi, Wangari Tharao, Lyle R. McKinnon, Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani. Biological factors that may contribute to regional and racial disparities in HIV prevalence.  American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (2011) Mar;65(3):317-24.
36. Lyle R. McKinnon, Catherine M. Card, and the International Infectious Diseases and Global Health Training Program.  HIV vaccine efficacy trials: A brief history, and options for going forward. AIDS Reviews (2010) Oct-Dec;12(4):209-17.
37. Elijah M Songok, Bernard Osero, Lyle McKinnon, Martin K Rono, Winnie Apidi, Elizabeth J Matey, Adrienne FA Meyers, Ma Luo, Joshua Kimani, Charles Wachihi, Blake T Ball, Frank A Plummer and Solomon Mpoke. CD26/ dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26/DPPIV) is highly expressed in peripheral blood of HIV-1 exposed uninfected female sex workers. Virology Journal (2010) Nov 25;7:343.
38. Meika Richmond, Lyle R. McKinnon, Sandra A. Koesters Kiazyk, Charles Wachihi, Makobu Kimani, Joshua Kimani, Francis A. Plummer and T. Blake Ball. Epitope mapping of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses by multiple immunological readouts reveals distinct specificities defined by function. Journal of Virology (2011) Feb;85(3):1275-86.
39. Lyle R. McKinnon, Rupert Kaul, Melissa Herman, Francis A. Plummer, T. Blake Ball.  HIV-specific T cells: strategies for fighting a moving target. Current HIV Research (2010) Dec 1;8(8):587-95.
40. Duncan Chege, Ivan Yi Chai, Sanja Huibner, Lyle McKinnon, Charles Wachihi, Makubo Kimani, Walter Jaoko, Joshua Kimani, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer, Rupert Kaul, Anuradha Rebbapragada.  Evaluation of a Quantitative Real-Time PCR assay to measure HIV specific mucosal CD8+ T cell responses in the cervix. PLoS ONE (2010) 5(10): e13077.
41. Lyle R. McKinnon, Makobu Kimani, Charles Wachihi, Nico J. Nagelkerke, Festus K. Muriuki, Anthony Kariri, Richard T. Lester, Lawrence Gelmon, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer, Rupert Kaul, Joshua Kimani. Effect of baseline HIV disease parameters on CD4+ T cell recovery after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Kenyan women. PLoS ONE (2010) 5(7): e11434.
42. Claudia Cicala, Elena Martinelli, Jonathan P. McNally, Diana J. Goode, Ravindra Gopaul, Joseph Hiatt, Katija Jelicic, Shyamasundaran Kottilil, Katilyn Macleod, Angeline O’Shea, Nikita Patel, Donald Van Ryk,  Danlan Wei, Massimiliano Pascuccio, Ling Yi, Lyle McKinnon, Preston Izulla, Joshua Kimani, Rupert Kaul, Anthony S. Fauci, and James Arthos. The Integrin α4β7 Forms a Complex with Cell-Surface CD4 and Defines a T Cell Subset that is Highly Susceptible to Infection by HIV-1. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA (2009) 106(49):20877-82.
43. Lyle R. McKinnon, Rupert Capina, Harold Peters, Mark Mendoza, Joshua Kimani, Charles Wachihi, Anthony Kariri, Makobu Kimani, Meika Richmond, Sandy Koesters Kiazyk, Keith R. Fowke, Walter Jaoko, Ma Luo, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer.  Clade-specific evolution mediated by HLA-B*57/5801 in Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade A1 p24. Journal of Virology (2009) 83: 12636.
44. Lyle R. McKinnon, Joshua Kimani, Charles Wachihi, Xiaojuan Mao, Binhua Liang, Christina Semeniuk, Mark Mendoza, Ma Luo, Keith R. Fowke, Francis A. Plummer, T. Blake Ball. Epitope mapping of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in a cohort dominated by clade A1 infection. PLoS ONE (2009) 4(9): e6965.
45. Richard T. Lester, Xiao-Dan Yao, T. Blake Ball, Lyle R. McKinnon, Rupert Kaul, Charles Wachihi, Walter Jaoko, Kenneth L. Rosenthal and Francis A. Plummer. HIV-1 primes proinflammatory responsiveness to sub-clinical endotoxemia through modulation of TLR4 by single stranded RNA. PLoS ONE (2009) 4(5): e5644.
46. Christina A. Semeniuk, Lyle McKinnon, Harold O. Peters, Michael Gubbins, Xiaojuan Mao, Terry B. Ball, Ma Luo, Francis A. Plummer. Multiple T Cell Epitopes Overlap Positively Selected Residues in p1 Spacer Protein of HIV-1 gag. AIDS (2009) 27(7):771-7.
47. Rachel E. Horton, T. Blake Ball, Charles Wachichi, W. John Rutherford, Lyle McKinnon, Rupert Kaul, Anu Rebbapragada, Joshua Kimani, Frank A Plummer.  Cervical HIV-Specific IgA in a Population of Commercial Sex Workers Correlates with Repeated Exposure But Not Resistance to HIV. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses (2009) 25(1):83.
48. Lyle R. McKinnon, T. Blake Ball, Charles Wachihi, Anne Maingi, Nyakio Chinga,  Ma Luo, Keith R. Fowke, Francis A. Plummer. Substantial intrapatient differences in the breadth and specificity of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell IFN-g and proliferation responses. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (2008) 49:123.
49. Richard T. Lester, Xiao-Dan Yao, T. Blake Ball, Lyle R. McKinnon, Rupert Kaul, Charles Wachihi, Walter Jaoko, Francis A. Plummer and Kenneth L. Rosenthal.  Toll-like receptor expression and responsiveness are increased in viremic HIV-1 infection. AIDS (2008) 22:685.
50. Lyle R. McKinnon, T. Blake Ball, Charles Wachihi, Paul J. McLaren, Jillian L.Waruk, Xiaojuan Mao, Sue Ramdahin, A. Omu Anzala, Jane Kamene, Ma Luo, Keith R. Fowke, Francis A. Plummer. Epitope Cross-Reactivity Differs Between Central and Effector Memory HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cells. Journal of Immunology (2007) 178: 3750.
51. Lyle R. McKinnon, T. Blake Ball, Joshua Kimani, Charles Wachihi, Lucy Matu, Ma Luo, Joanne Embree, Keith R. Fowke, Francis A. Plummer. Cross-Clade CD8+ T-Cell Responses With a Preference for the Predominant Circulating Clade. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. (2005) 40:245.
52. Luo, M., C.R. Cohen, M.J. Narayansingh, S. Pan, L. McKinnon, R. Brunham, F.A. Plummer. Identification of a Novel HLA-DQA1 allele, DQA1*04N, from a Woman of Kenya, Africa. Tissue Antigens (2004) 63:609.