Study Area: Hudson Bay
Submitted by: Ashley Gaden
With escalating marine traffic and potentially significant prospects of oil and gas development, the Arctic is faced with an increasing risk of petroleum pollution. Oil spills are one of the most serious threats to marine ecosystems, and thus they also affect northern communities’ livelihoods. Drilling accidents like the Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico (2010) and the Marathassa oil spill in English Bay, Vancouver (2015) have highlighted the need for better preparedness for such events. Furthermore, decision-makers in government, industry and indigenous organizations face knowledge, policy and capacity gaps with respect to oil spill mitigation, especially for ice-covered, sub-zero temperature marine waters.
One of the approaches to mitigating oil in marine waters is through bioremediation, whereby naturally present microorganisms biodegrade oils and reduce the negative impacts of the spill. While this phenomenon has been observed in more southerly latitudes, the extent and success of using bioremediation to treat oil in the Arctic marine setting is fairly new and requires further study. Genomics is the study of organism DNA and genetic mapping. By using genomics to study the groups of microorganisms that biodegrade oil, and investigating their associated active genes under various Arctic conditions, we can build capacity for developing cross-cutting spill mitigation strategies and preparation measures among local, regional, national and international levels of governance.
GENICE is a Genome Canada $10.7 M, 4-year project led by Drs. Gary Stern (CEOS) and Casey Hubert (University of Calgary). Officially announced December 8, 2016 by Minister of Science Kirsty Duncan, the Large-Scale Applied Research Project will make use of the upcoming Churchill Marine Observatory and its Oil in Sea Ice Mesocosms.
GENICE outcomes include:
GENICE is structured into six central activities with leaders and teams that will work collaboratively to deliver the above outcomes.
Project outcomes will lead to informed and appropriately scaled plans for coastal and ocean management, spill mitigation strategies, improved risk management, and decreased environmental, social, economic and regulatory uncertainties associated with potential spills. Through the GE3LS component of the project, GENICE will bring together scientists, residents of northern communities, indigenous organizations, government departments, regulatory agencies, non-governmental and private sector groups to contribute their needs and knowledge to the project and also to enact GENICE deliverables.
Gary Stern, David Barber, John Sinclair, Adolf Ng, Changmin Jiang
Casey Hubert, Marc Strous, Stephan Larter, Maribeth Murray, Amy Noel
Charles Greer (McGill University), Meinhard Doelle (Dalhousie University)
Rhonda Clark (University of Calgary)
Ashley Gaden (University of Manitoba)
GENOME Canada, Genome Prairies, Research Manitoba, Province of Alberta, Canada Research Chair Programme
Shipping routes through Hudson Bay with coastal communities indicated (red dots). Routes reflect 2010 vessel traffic. Line thickness corresponds to the volume of traffic. Sakleg Basin (red star) is the site of hydrocarbon seep sampling for Activities 2 and 5.
Cells of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium from the Athabasca River. The cell surfaces produce outer membrane extrusions or 'blebs' that are believed to increase the surface area available to interact with the hydrocarbons to improve degradation efficiency. Images produced at McGill University. Credit: Dr. Charles Greer (McGill University).