Some students complete all or part of the undergraduate Criminology program as advanced study before entering university programs in law or social work or before pursuing careers in law enforcement, corrections, probation or parole, criminal justice administration, crime prevention, or private security. Others work with youth as child and youth care counsellors or detention workers. Additional opportunities for work are in the areas of mediation or victim services. Like other social science majors, undergraduate Criminology majors also are employed in non-crime related sectors such as health and social services (eg. in substance abuse and rehabilitation counselling), community work (eg. in child welfare agencies), and federal, provincial, and local government (eg. in urban planning and housing).
Some students continue their studies at the graduate level and go on to teach in universities and colleges. Normally, students who do this are required to have a more advanced, typically 4-year, Honours degrees in either Criminology or Sociology. Research positions are another common career path for criminologists with more advanced research-based degrees. In addition to universities, research is conducted in a variety of other employment settings, including government bureaus and agencies, research institutes in the non-profit or advocacy sector, and consulting. Generally, employment as a teacher or researcher requires completion of a Master’s and/or Doctoral degree. Some students seeking teaching and research positions use the undergraduate Criminology Honours program as preparation for graduate work in Criminology or in a related fields such as Socio-legal Studies, Social Work, Public Policy, Business, or Urban Planning.